The surname of INWARDS was of two-fold origin. It was a baptismal name 'the son of Inard' an ancient personal name, now long forgotten. It was also a locational name 'of Inworth' a spot in County Essex. Most of the place-names that yield surnames are usually of small communities, villages, hamlets, some so insignificant that they are now lost to the map. A place-name, it is reasonable to suppose, was a useful surname only when a man moved from his place of origin to elsewhere, and his new neighbours bestowed it, or he himself adopted it. Early records of the name Roger de Ynewrode who was recorded in the year 1202 in County Northumberland. Ithenard (without surname) was documented in County Berkshire during the reign of Henry I (1100-1135) and Ynard de Elinrugge appears in County Worcester during the reign of Edward I (1272-1307). The rise of surnames, according to the accepted theory, was due to the Norman Conquest of 1066 when Old English personal-names were rapidly superseded by the new christian names introduced by the Normans. Of these, only a few were really popular and in the 12th century this scarcity of christian names led to the increasing use of surnames to distinguish the numerous individuals of the same name. Some Normans had hereditary surnames before they came to England, but there is evidence that surnames would have developed in England even had there been no Norman Conquest. The development of the feudal system made it essential that the king should know exactly what service each person owed. Payments to and by the exchequer required that debtors and creditors should be particularized, and it became official that each individual acquired exact identification. Later instances of the name mention Ythenard de Elnard of Yorkshire who was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Richard, son of John Inward was buried at St. Dionis Backchurch, London in 1684, and Thomas Cooper and Mary Innard were married at Canterbury, Kent in the year 1685. It has long been a matter of doubt when the bearing of coats of arms first became hereditary and it was not until the Crusades that Heraldry came into general use. Men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way.
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