|Habergeon. See Hauberk.
Habick. See Clothiers' habick.
Habillé, (fr.): clothed; said of men when habited, and also of a ship when the sails are of another tincture.
Habited: clothed or vested.
Hache, (fr.): hatchet. See Axe.
Haddock. See Cod.
Hafted, (fr. emmanché): with handle(of a different tincture), e.g. of an axe, hammer, &c.
Haie, (fr.): in French arms an enclosure of any kind, either of brambles and branches, or of military fascines.
Hair: a lock of hair is rarely found, but a head, &c., is often blazoned as having the hair of a particular tincture, and more frequently the term crined(fr. chevelée) is used. In the case of the arms of HARBOTTLE, however, the locks should more probably be blazoned icicles. See under gouttes. A head proper would naturally have the hair; and if no tincture is named, brown may be used. In one case the head is blazoned bald. See head.|
Sable, a comb argent on a lock of golden hair--BLOUD.
Azure, three locks of hair in bend or--HARBOTTLE.
Gules, three boy's heads couped, crined or, with snakes round about their necks azure--VAUGHAN, Hargest, Wales.
Gules, three maiden's heads couped argent, crined or--MADESTON.
See example also under boar, colour.
Hake. See Cod.
Halbert, (fr. haillebarde). See Pole-axe.
Hame, or Heame: the collar by which a horse draws a waggon. A hame(or, as some call it, a pair of hames) was the badge of the family of SAINT JOHN, supposed, in consequence, by heraldic writers to have held the office of master of the baggage-waggons. It has not been observed actually borne in any arms.
Two eagles with wings expanded or, ducally crowned gules, each charged in the breast with a pair of horse-hames tied at the top and bottom proper, the inside per pale argent and of the second--Supporters of the Arms of Viscount BOLINGBROKE and ST.JOHN.
Hameçon. See Cross, §22.
Haméide, (fr.): signifies a figure formed by three bars humetty chamfered at the ends and set one above the other.
Hammer, (fr. marteau): hammers of several kinds occur as charges. There are the Plasterers' and the Wrights' hammer especially named. The device is usually represented as if clawed(as shewn in the margin), although it be not so specified. It will be seen that it occurs in the ancient rolls under the term martel, and one or two French families of the name of MARTEL still bear this charge.
London Plasterers' Company.
London Blacksmiths' Company.
Sir Adam MARTEL de sable a iij martels de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Azure, on a chevron engrailed or, between in chief two plasterer's hammers argent handled of the second, and in base a treble flat-brush of the third handle upward like the third; a rose gules seeded or barbed vert, enclosed by two fleurs-de-lis of the first; in chief a trowel fesswise, handle to the sinister as the third--Company of PLASTERERS, London[Inc. 1501].
Sable, a chevron or between three hammers argent handled of the second, ducally crowned of the last--Company of BLACKSMITHS and SPURRIERS[Inc. 1579].
Azure, a hammer erect in pale argent ensigned with a ducal coronet or--Company of HAMMERMEN, Edinburgh.
Sable, a chevron argent between three hammers or ducally crowned of the last--SMITHS' Company, Exeter.
Azure, a chevron between three lathing-hammers argent, handled or--SLATERS' Company, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Or, three hammers sable--HAMERTON.
Gules, a fesse between three hammers or--PIGOTT.
Gules, three hammers with claws argent--MARTELL.
Argent, a bend of six lozenges conjoined between as many mattocks, with the clawed ends to the dexter, sable--BOLRON, co. Chester.
Gules, three wright's hammers clawed argent--PURSER,
Gules, a dexter hand couped proper holding a sword paleways argent between two broken hammers or--NASMYTH.
D'or, a trois marteaux de gules--MARTEL, Normandy.
With the hammer may be associated the mallet(fr. maillet), used by masons and others. It is usually figured as in the arms of FORTE, but sometimes with a square head, while a figure like that in the margin above is found in the insignia of the MARBLERS' Company. (See the arms given under Chipping-axe).
Argent, three mallets gules--FORTE, co. Somerset[ancient arms of DE FORTIBUS].
Gules, a chevron between three mallets or--SOAME, [Bart., 1684].
Sable, three square hammers[i.e. mallets] argent--BROWNE, co. Rutland.
Argent, a fesse between three mallets sable--BROWNE.
Argent, a fesse between three mallets, the handles reversed gules--BLOODMAN.
Hanchet. See Bugle-horn.
Badge of ULSTER.
Hand, (fr. main): the human hand is often borne in coat armour, though only one instance has been observed in the early rolls, and that only incidental. When no other position is mentioned it is understood to be apaumé, as in the arms of ULSTER, which came to be the badge of a baronet of Great Britain; it is borne either on an escutcheon or canton. See Baronet. Otherwise the hand may be borne dorsed(or, as it is sometimes called, aversant); or it may be in fesse, or with the fingers downwards, or clenched, or holding some object; the hand is generally couped at the wrist, and is so represented if no other description is given; sometimes, however, the blazon runs couped below, or above the wrist; generally a dexter hand is named, and it is so understood unless a sinister is specified; hands in armour should rather be blazoned gauntlets. See also Gloves.
Sometimes heads are represented as clasping or embracing; and with French heralds two heads joined thus are simply blazoned une foi. In connection with this the arms of PUREFOY and PUREFEY should be noted.
Argent, a sinister hand erect couped gules--Province of ULSTER.
Sire Johan de COYNERS dazure ov la maunch dor e ove la meyn[i.e. a maunche or, a hand proper]--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Azure, a dexter hand[in some instances, a sinister hand] apaumé, couped, argent--BROME.
Gules, a fesse between four dexter hands couped argent--QUATERMAIN, Oxford.
Gules, a dexter hand couped barways argent--BAREMAINE.
Or, on a chief gules a hand couped barwise[otherwise extended transverse the chief] argent--MAINSTONE.
Gules, three hands, fingers downwards argent; a quarter chequy azure and or--SUTTON.
Or, on a bend azure three dexter hands couped at the wrist and clenched, argent--ESINGOLD.
Azure, a dexter hand couped at the wrist and clenched, in pale argent--FEAST, Middlesex.
Sable, a close hand[i.e. clenched] argent--POWNSE.
Sable, three sinister hands erased argent--MAYNARD.
Gules, three hands holding a crown a key and a purse or--Arms ascribed to NIGELLUS, Bp. of Ely, 1133-69; and to RICHARD DE ELY, Bp. of London, 1189-98.
Gules, in a maunch ermine a hand proper holding a fleur-de-lis or--BRUTON Priory, Somerset, [also MOHUN].
Purpure, a sinister hand couped and erect argent--MANLEY.
Gules, two arms and hands clasped in fesse proper between three hearts or--WARTON, Bp. of S.Asaph, 1536, and of Hereford, 1554-57.
Gules, three pairs of hands back to back argent--PUREFOY, co. Buckingham.
Sable, three pairs of armed hands embracing argent two and one--PUREFOY, Caldecot, co. Warwick.
Sable, three pairs of dexter hands conjoined or ruffled argent--PUREFEY.
Gueules à la foi d'argent--COUSIN de la TOUR FONDUE.
D'azur, a une foi d'argent vêtue de pourpre posée en bande et mouvante d'une nuée d'argent--ARENE, Provence.
As the Badge of Ulster has been referred to under this article, it is thought well to give one or two examples.
Per pale argent and sable, a chevron between three talbots passant counterchanged; on a chief gules as many leopard's heads or. On the fesse-point the badge of Ulster--GOOCH, Benacre Hall, Suffolk.
Gules, a fret argent, a canton of Ulster--Sir George FLEMING, Bp. of Carlisle, 1735-47.
Gules, a fesse between six mullets argent; a canton of Ulster--Sir William ASHBURNHAM, Bp. of Chichester, 1754-97.
Argent, a chevron sable, a canton of Ulster--Sir Jonathan TRELAWNEY, Bp. of Bristol, 1685; afterwards of Exeter, 1689; and last of Winchester, 1707-21.
Hand-basket. See Basket.
Hand-bow. See Bow.
Hand-cuff. See Fetterlock.
Hand-grenade. See Fireball.
Hand-saw. See Saw.
Hanger. (1) See Sabre; (2) See Hook.
Hank: Hanks of cotton, of silk, and of bowstrings are found in heraldry. The cotton-hank is the most frequent, and it occurs in the arms of very many families of the name of COTTON.
An example of hanks of silk will be found under that term, and one of bowstrings is given below. The position of the hank is usually upright, as shewn in the margin.
Azure, a chevron between three hanks of cotton erect argent--Hugh COTTON, co. Stafford.
Azure, three cotton-hanks argent--COTTON, Combermere.
Argent, three bars sable, over all as many cotton-hanks or--COTTON.
Barry of six argent and sable, three cotton-hanks or--HAYWOOD.
Azure, on a fesse argent between a bee-hive, surrounded by bees volant in chief, and in base a mill-wheel or, a hank of cotton of the field between two roses gules barbed and seeded proper--CALRON, co. Lancaster.
Azure, a hank or knot of bowstrings in pale or; on a chief argent three bows--LONG BOWSTRING MAKERS' Company, London.
Hare: the Hare(fr. lièvre). as also the rabbit(fr. lapin), always blazoned coney(and in one case the leveret), are not infrequent in coats of arms, but, so far as has been observed, there are no rules followed as to distinct drawing of these varieties.
They are more frequently represented as sejant, and if no description is given they would be drawn so; but they are found blazoned courant, boltant, passant, salient, and(though wrongly) rampant; also feeding, and issuing from their burrows; the most remarkable of all is the hare playing upon the bagpipes(q.v.). Hares' heads occur in one case.
Argent, three hares(elsewhere conies) courant in pale azure--ARROWOOD, Lancashire.
Azure, a chevron ermine between two hares courant in chief, and a sun in base[elsewhere in chief three suns argent, in base a hare courant]--WATSON, Bp. of Winchester, 1580-84.
Azure, a hare salient guardant argent with a hunting-horn hanging about the neck vert garnished gules within a bordure counter-compony of the second and first--CLELAND, Edinburgh.
Azure, a hare rampant between three mullets or--MARCHANT.
Argent, a chevron gules between three leverets courant sable--LEYVER, or LEVER, co. Lancaster.
Azure, three leverets courant in pale--LEVERINGTON.
Gules, three conies sejant argent within a bordure engrailed sable--Sir Humphry CONESBY, co. Hereford, and CONINGSBY, co. Norfolk.
Argent, [otherwise or,] three conies passant sable--CONYSTON.
Argent, on a chevron azure a coney passant between two fishes hauriant of the first; on a chief checky of the first and second a rose or on a pale of the second--CHEYNEY, Bp. of Bristol, 1562-79.
Argent, a saltire gules between four conies feeding sable--CONY, co. Hertford.
Per fesse argent and vert, a pale counterchanged, three conies issuing from their burrows of the first--BROWGHE.
Argent, on a fesse nebuly sable three hare's heads couped or--HAREWELL, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1366-86.
Hareng, (fr.): herring.
Harnysed: clad in armour.
Insignia of IRELAND.
Harp, (fr. harpe): this charge is best known as the ensign of the kingdom of IRELAND, but is borne also by one or two families. It first appears crowned amongst the royal badges on the accession of the Stuarts. The head and wings of an angel have been added in late examples, but without authority. The Irish name cloyshackes seems to be applied in one MS. to the harp(see under Ireland). We also find the Jew's harp mentioned, but it is doubtful if it is not meant(as the name of the bearer implies) for a scoop.
Azure, a harp or stringed argent--IRELAND.
Gules, three cloyshackes or stringed argent--IRELAND, Harl. MS. 304.
Azure, three harps or--DOBBIN, Ireland.
Argent, three harps sable stringed or--HARPSFIELD.
Azure, two lions rampant combatant supporting a garbe or; in dexter base a crescent argent, in sinister base the harp of Ireland--FOGARTY.
Argent, a Jew's harp[or a scoop] in bend sable between six laurel-leaves of the last--SCOPHAM, co. Lincoln.
Harpoon. See Eel-spear.
Harpy. See under Sphinx.
Harrington's Knot. See Cords, also Fret.
Harrow, (fr. herse): two forms of the harrow occur in armoury, the first is square, the other triangular. The former might be mistaken for the portcullis, and in fact the French term herse is applied to both.
Azure, a chevron between three harrows or--HARROWER.
Argent, three harrows sable two and one[otherwise argent, a chevron between three harrows sable]--HARVY, Hale, Cornwall.
Erminois, an annulet interlacing three triangular harrows conjoined in the fesse point--REDMAYNE, co. York.
Ermine, three triangular harrows gules, toothed or, and conjoined in the nombril point of the escutcheon gules by a wreath argent and of the second[otherwise, Ermines, the harrows or, the wreath argent and or]--HARROW, or HARWE.
Hart. See Deer.
Harvest-fly. See Butterfly.
Hat, (fr. chapeau): one similar to the figure in the margin is borne by the FELTMAKERS' Company, but various forms occur depending on date, &c.
Ermine, on a chevron between three felt hats strings sable as many escallops argent--Company of HATTER MERCHANTS, London.
Argent, a chapeau or hat azure, with a plume of ostrich-feathers in front gules--John KINGESTON, 1390[Harl. MS. 1178].
For the Cardinal's hat, see Cap.
Hat-band. Two forms of this bearing occur. The first is wreathed, as in the arms of BURY; and the second that borne by the Companies of FELTMAKERS and HATBANDMAKERS.
Sable, a chevron argent between three hat-bands wreathed of the second and azure--BURY.
Argent, a dexter hand couped at the wrist gules between two hat-bands nowed azure, in chief a hat sable banded of the third--FELTMAKERS' Company[Inc. 1604].
Azure, on a chevron between three hat-bands or as many merillions sable--HATBANDMAKERS' Company[Inc. 1664].
Gules, a chevron between three hat-bands argent--MAYNES.
Hatchet. See Axe.
Hatchments. See Achievements.
Haurient: breathing, a term applied to a fish in an erect position. See under Fish.
Haussé, (fr.): of a chevron fesse, &c., when enhanced.
Haut, (fr.): sometimes used of a sword when erect.
Hautboy. See Trumpet.
Hawk, Hawk's Bell, Hawk's Lure. See Falcon.
Hawmed, i.q. Humetty.
Hawthorn: this bush is used in some few instances on account of its name. It was also adopted as a badge by Henry VII., and described as a hawthorn-bush regally crowned. The white-thorn is found on the arms of Bishop ALDRICH, and the may-flowers probably represent the flowers of the bush. It may be fructed, or flowered, and the leaves also occur.
Argent, a hawthorn-tree eradicated proper--SYLVESTER.
Argent, three thorn-trees vert--THORNHOLME[granted 1653].
Per pale argent and gules, a chevron between three lion's heads erased counterchanged; on a chief or a thorn-tree proper--THORNTHWAITE, Cumberland.
Argent, a thorn-tree fructed proper on a chief gules a lion passant guardant or--O'MURCHOE.
Argent, a hawthorn-tree erased vert, flowered gules--BRETLAND, co. Chester.
Argent, a chevron sable between three hawthorn-leaves vert--THORNTON, co. York.
Verte, on a fesse argent between three garbs or, banded gules, two boughs of whitethorn saltier-wise enfiled with a crown proper, between a mound royal azure and a robin redbreast proper, all within a bordure engrailed of the third[pometty ?]--ALDRICH, Bp. of Carlisle, 1537-56.
Gules, a cross ingrailed ermine between in chief two may-flowers slipped or--MAYFIELD, co. Cambridge[granted 1684].
Hauberk, or Hauberg: a name which appears to be given to the cuirass, from the German Hals==berg, i.e. a protection for the neck, but it has only been observed in one coat of arms.
The Habergeon is given in books as a diminutive of Hauberk, and is a short coat of mail without sleeves, but no example has been noticed is blazon. [The word, it may be added, is used in the Authorized Version, 2 Chron. xxvi. 14.]
Per pale azure and gules, a tilting-spear in pale proper surmounted by a hauberk[or coat of mail] or--AUBERT.
Hay-fork. See Fork.
Hay-hook. See Horse-picker.
Hazel, the tree, the leaves, the nuts, are all represented in different arms; the filberts also. A chaplet is sometimes composed of hazel, and a squirrel is sometimes represented cracking nuts. A bunch of filberts is in French blazon called coquerelles.
Argent, on a fesse gules between three owls sable as many lozenges ermine; on a chief azure three nut-trees[or hazel-boughs] proper--HASLEWOOD.
Argent, a hind's head couped azure collared or, between two hazel-boughs vert fructed or--ALFORD, Suffolk.
Argent, a chevron sable between hazel-leaves vert--HESILRIGGE.
Or, on s fesse azure between three hazel-slips proper as many crescents argent--HASELL, Cumberland.
Or, a chevron sable between three hazel-nuts erect slipped gules--TARSELL.
Argent, a fesse gules between three hazel-nuts or husks and stalks vert--HASELEY, Suffolk.
Argent, on a chevron between three filberts sable two cats combatant of the first--GIBBS.
D'argent, à la rose de gueules cantonnée de quatre coquerelles de sinople--LA BORDE.
Crest of DRAYTON.
Head, (fr. tête): as will have been noticed, the heads of beasts, birds, and fishes are very frequently represented by themselves, being couped, or erased; but it has been thought well to group under one article the various forms of the human head as they appear in heraldic design, and it has been observed they are very frequent in the arms of Welsh families. It may be said generally that, unless otherwise specified, the human head(as well as heads of beasts) should be drawn in profile. In English arms the heads are usually blazoned proper; in French arms the tincture is usually named, i.e. carnation. The following are the representative types of these charges, of which it is thought well to give examples. Besides men's heads proper, which are generally represented as those of old men with hair(fr. chevelée), and bearded(fr. barbée), and young men's heads(see example under mascle), we find various heads specified, as of Englishmen, of Saxons, of Princes, of Saracens(as in the crest of DRAYTON), of Turks, of Moors, or blackamoors and negroes, of the gypsy or Egyptian, and finally of savages' heads. In one case a bald head is given. There seem to be no very defined rules for drawing the respective heads, much being left to the ingenuity of the artist; still in many of the arms as exhibited in sculpture or in glass the heads are very characteristic.
Azure, three broad arrows or, two and one feathered argent; on a chief of the second as many men's heads couped sidefaced proper--WATTES, Somerset.
Gules, a chevron ermine between three Englishmen's heads in profile proper--LLOYD, co. Denbigh.
[Similar arms seems to be borne by Abp. WILLIAMS of York, and Bp. GRIFFITH of S.Asaph.]
Gules, a chevron between three Saxon's heads in profile, the two in chief couped and one in base erased argent--GRIFFITH.
Ermine, three prince's heads crowned and mantled proper couped at the breast--ENFANTLEROY.
Gules, a chevron between three Saracen's heads couped at the shoulders argent--SARES, Middlesex.
Gules, a Saracen's head erased proper hair and beard or, round the temples a fillet nowed argent and azure; on a chief or three roses gules--HUGHES, Bp. of S.Asaph, 1573-1600.
Vert, a chevron gules between three Turk's heads couped proper turbaned or--SMITH, granted 1623.
D'azur, à trois têtes de Turcs de carnation, le turban parti et tortillé d'or et de gueules--BELO, Manche.
Argent, three moor's heads couped at the shoulders proper filleted or and gules--TANNER, Bp. of S.Asaph, 1732-35.
Or, on a fesse between three Moor's heads erased sable as many crescents argent--BLACKMORE.
Or, a blackamoor's head couped sable--BINNS.
Or, a cross gules between four blackamoor's heads affrontee, couped at the shoulders proper, wreathed about the temples gold--JUXON, Bp. of London, 1633; Abp. of Cant. 1660-63.
Per fesse argent and sable, a pale counterchanged three negro's heads proper--GERARD.
Per fesse gules and argent, three Egyptian's heads counterchanged--ASHPOOLE.
On a wreath a cubit arm erect grasping a dagger, enfiled with a gypsy's head couped proper--Crest of MACLELLAN, Lord Kircudbright.
Azure, a bird's leg couped at the thigh or, conjoined to a savage's head argent, hair sable--PETRE.
Vert, a lion rampant or; on a chief argent a man's head couped at the neck and bald proper between ducal coronets of the second--MULTADY, Ireland.
Gules, a chevron argent between three St.Paul's heads proper--PAULSWORTH, or PILSWORTH.
Crest of Arms of HILTON.
Head of S.John the Baptist.
Amongst peculiar examples may be named Moses' head and the head of John the Baptist in a charger. The former, however, is borne only as a crest, that is to say, by the family of HILTON, and the engraving is taken from the carving on the eastern front of Hilton Castle, Durham. The latter appears as the crest of the London Company of TALLOWCHANDLERS, adopted, no doubt, in consequence of S.John the Baptist being chosen as their patron Saint; it is also borne by the town of Ayr in Scotland(see the arms given under Lamb). Again, a peculiar head appears as the crest of Sir Sandich de TRANE, knight-founder of the Garter(that is to say one of the first knights of the order); it is blazoned sometimes as a Satyr's head, and the device appears also in a coat of arms. Other fanciful heads occur as crests, e.g. a Fiend's head(blazoned also 'Satan's head'), i.e. a men's head with ears like a dragon's wings, and a Whittal's head, said to be a man's head with short horns, and called by Anstis 'the head of Midas, with asses' ears.'
The head of Moses proper, with two rays or horns or--Crest borne by HILTON. [The arms are argent, two bars azure.]
On a wreath a demi angel issuing from clouds, proper, vested azure, wings expanded or, crined of the last; on his head a cap; thereon a cross patée of the third, holding a dish argent, glorified or; therein the head of S.John the Baptist proper--TALLOW-CHANDLERS' Company, London. [Arms and crest granted, Sept. 24, 1463.]
Argent, on a bend sable, three satyr's heads couped at the shoulders of the first, horned or--WHEYWELL.
Sable, three Midas's heads erased argent, crowned or--JAY.
Of Women's heads there are also several varieties. As a rule they are drawn with dishevelled hair. The maidens' heads are drawn as the head and shoulders of a woman affronty, couped below the breasts, her hair dishevelled, and usually wreathed with a garland of roses; sometimes also crowned with an eastern crown. The term bust is also sometimes used in English, but more frequently in French blazon. The term lady's head is also found, as also nun's head, the last being generally veiled.
Azure, a fesse or, in chief three women's heads couped at the breasts proper and crined of the second; in base a leopard's face of the last--SUGDON.
Sable, a fesse enhanced argent; in chief three nun's heads couped at the shoulders proper, vested of the second, crowned or; in base an ox passing a ford proper--S.FRIDESWIDE'S PRIORY, Oxford, afterwards the arms of the Bishoprick of OXFORD.
Azure, on a chevron argent between three maiden's heads of the second, crined or, three lilies slipped gules; on a chief of the third a cross tau sable between two roses of the fourth--TAYLOR, Bp. of Lincoln, 1532-54.
Azure, three lady's heads in fesse between as many fleurs-de-lis or--COLLARD.
Argent, a chevron sable between three nun's heads veiled couped at the shoulders proper--DAVENEY, Norfolk.
Argent, on a bend between six billets gules three veiled nun's heads couped bendwise of the first--WEDNISSON.
Gules, a maiden's head proper crined or--MAYDENSTUN, Bp. of Worcester, 1314-17.
Gules, three bars ermine; on a canton argent a maiden's head proper--BARETTI, India.
.... A quadrangular castle surmounted with another, over the battlements the bust of a queen, her hair dishevelled and(ducally) crowned .... --Seal of Corporation of QUEENBOROUGH, Kent.
D'azur, a trois bustes de reine de carnation couronnées à l'antique d'or--GRANDMONT, Comtat-Venaissin.
Infants', and children's, and boys' heads are also found named, frequently with a snake twisted around the neck.
Argent, a boy's head proper, crined or, couped below the shoulders, vested gules, garnished gold--BOYMAN.
Gules, three boy's heads couped argent crined or--INFANT.
Sable, three infant's heads couped at the shoulders proper crined or--BONYFANT.
Sable, a fesse or between three children's heads couped at the shoulders proper; about each neck a snake vert--APJOHN, Surrey.
Sable, a chevron argent between three children's heads couped at the shoulders proper crined or; about each neck a snake vert--VAUGHAN.
The Seraph's head is said to be represented as the head of an infant with six wings, two above it in saltire, two below it in saltire, and one on each side, but so far as has been observed no example occurs. Death's heads are but rarely borne(see under Bones).
Headpiece. See Helmet.
Heart, (fr. cur): the human heart when blazoned 'proper' is to be gules. It is sometimes borne flammant; also crowned; but the latter not before the sixteenth century.
Argent, a heart imperially crowned proper[i.e. gules, crowned gold] on a chief azure three mullets of the field--DOUGLAS.
[This crowned heart is said to an augmentation in memory of Sir James Douglas, who undertook to carry the heart of King Robert, call the Bruce, to the Holy Land to be buried there in the year 1328.]
Argent, a chief sable in fesse a human heart gules--Edmund SCAMLER, Bp. of Peterborough, 1561; Bp. of Norwich, 1585-94.
Gules, a body-heart, between two wings displayed or--Henry de WENGHAM, Bishop of London, 1259-62.
Argent, a heart gules within a fetterlock sable; on a chief azure, three boar's heads erased argent--LOCKHEART.
Per fesse wavy or and vert; in chief a human heart emitting flames of fire proper between two crosses crosslet sable; in base an anchor erect of the last--WADE, co. Durham.
Azure, a fesse or; over all on a pile argent three hearts gules, two and one--KEAN, Ireland.
Argent, three hearts flammant gules--HEART, Scotland.
Or, three bars wavy gules; over all a human heart counterchanged--DRUMMOND, co. Perth.
Heath-cock, or Black-cock. This bird, which differs from the common cock, is represented as in the annexed figure. It is frequently confounded with the moor-cock(q.v.).
Argent, a heath-cock proper[i.e. sable], comb and gill gules--Sir Francis MORE, Serjeant-at-law, 1619.
Sable, a buck lodged reguardant argent; between the attires a heath-cock volant or--MORTOFT, Norfolk.
Sable, on a mount in base vert a buck salient or; a chief of the third charged with a black-cock proper--MARTOSET.
Argent, on a fesse wavy sable between five heath-cocks of the second six plates--Sir John EBRINGTON[ob. A.D. 1477].
A demi heath-cock with wings expanded azure, powdered with annulets or; in the beak a lily argent--Crest of the COOPERS' Company.
Heaume, (fr.), Healme, (old fr.): helmet.
Hedgehog, (fr. hérisson): this animal is chiefly borne allusively to its French name by families whose names are varied forms of HARRIS. The urchin, as well as the porcupine, are no doubt sometimes blazoned instead of it, from the drawings being mistaken one for the other.
Argent, three hedgehogs sable--HARRIES, Scotland[also HERIZ].
Argent, a thistle vert flowered gules between three hedgehogs sable--HARRIS, Cousland.
Azure, three hedgehogs argent--HERYS.
Azure, three hedgehogs or--HERIZ, co. Leicester.
Or, three hedgehogs azure--HARRIS, co. Salop.
Or, three hedgehogs passant in pale gules--HERCY.
Azure, three hedgehogs statant or--Sir Roger SWELYTON.
D'argent, à trois herissons de sable--HERICY, Normandy[also HERISSON, Bretagne].
Heights: used of rows of feathers. See under Plumes.
Heliotrope. See Sunflower.
Helmet, (fr. casque, old fr. heaume, but applied to a close helmet): the covering for protection of the head in warfare has varied in form from the earliest ages onwards, but an account of the various shapes belongs to the history of armour.
In heraldry the Helmet assumed an important place as an appendage to the shield, for on this was fixed the crest(q.v.). Originally there seems to have been no special distinction as regards the forms of the helmet; they simply followed the customary shape of the period, and were drawn sideways; but in Elizabeth's reign it would appear that certain kinds of helmets were assigned to different degrees of nobility.
I. The sovereign's was to be of burnished gold, affronty, i.e. full-faced, with six bars, or grilles, and lined with crimson.
II. The helmets of dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, and barons, were to be composed of silver or polished steel, with five gold bars, and lined with crimson. According to some authorities they should be placed neither affronty nor in profile, but between those positions; but there seem to be conflicting directions, and the practice varied.
III. Baronets' and knights' helmet were to be affronty and open, but supplied with a visor. They are supposed to be formed of steel ornamented with gilding, and usually lined with crimson.
IV. The helmets of esquires and private gentlemen were to be placed in profile, with the visor or beaver closed; to be of steel, but enriched with gold. These are drawn after various patterns however, the only point being that the visor should be closed, whence they are termed close helmets.
The French timbre includes the helmet and all that belongs to it. For the appurtenances it is supposed we are indebted to the tournaments, and they consist of the crest, the wreath, the supporters, the mantle, ribbons or feathers, and the scroll.
It should be added that helmets are seldom, if ever, found over the shields of bishops(except over that of the Bishop of Durham, to represent his temporal dignity), the mitre taking its place; or over that of women, except in the case of a sovereign. More than one helmet may be placed over the same shield, but it is rare.
Helmets, however, are also occasionally borne as charges, and generally the esquire's or close helmet is intended. In blazoning, however, there is frequently a reference to the visor(fr. viziere, or garde vizure), or beaver(old fr. beauvoir); the modern fr. mezail is also used. When this is up it is supposed to be a knight's helmet, when down an esquire's.
The portion which rests upon the shoulders, and protects the neck, is termed the gorged.
The helmet has sometimes plumes of feathers(q.v.).
Sable, a close helmet between three spear-heads, points fessways argent--David DOLBEN, Bp. of Bangor, 1632; also John DOLBEN, Bp. of Rochester, 1666, Abp. of York, 1683-86.
Azure, two bars argent between three close helmets or--ARMIGER, Norfolk.
Sable, a lion passant guardant or between three helmets argent--COMPTON, Bp. of Oxford, 1674; of London, 1675-1713.
Argent, three helmets with open vizors adorned with plumes of feathers azure--MYNYOT, Kent.
Argent, three knight's helmets azure line gules--GOODACRE, Ireland.
Gules, three helmets argent, vizors and garnishing or--BASSET, [Lord Mayor of London, 1475].
Gules, three men's heads in profile armed with head pieces and gorgets argent--O'KENNEDY.
Or, three front-faced helmets proper--ELLICE, Herts.
Azure, a knight's helmet with snake entwined round it between three lion's heads erased or--ADOLPHUS.
Argent, a lion rampant gules, on his head a helmet azure--CLAPHAM, Scotland.
Helved: with handle or haft of a different tincture, used e.g. of a Pole-axe.
Hemisphere. See Sphere.
Hemp-break, or Hemp-hackle(also Flax-breaker), was the device of Sir Reginald BRAY, and is seen upon the vaulting of S.George's chapel at Windsor. This machine for pounding the hemp seems, like many other devices, to be borne on account of the name, the old word bray signifying to bruise or pound(see Proverbs xxvii. 22). From the form it has been confused with the breys or barnacles, q.v.
Argent, three hemp-breaks sable--HAMPSON.
Sable, on a fesse between three bugle-horns stringed and garnished argent a hemp-break gules--BRAINE.
Azure, on a fesse between three bugle-horns stringed argent a hemp-buckle gules--BRAYNE, co. Gloucester.
Hen. See Cock.
Heneage's knot. See Cords.
Herald, (fr. héraut, old fr. herault): the duties of heralds were originally of a military and diplomatic character, but in time were transferred to granting and regulating armorial bearings, investigating genealogies, and superintending public ceremonies.
From the thirteenth century there seem to have existed certain officers of arms known as Heralds and Pursuivants; the latter being noviciates and candidates for the superior offices. They were eventually incorporated by King Richard III., and received further privileges from Edward VI. Queen Mary, on July 18, 1555, gave the society Derby House, in the parish of S.Benedict, Paul's Wharf, now called Heralds' College.
The COLLEGE OF ARMS.--The corporation consists of thirteen persons, namely,
The three KINGS OF ARMS,--Garter, Clarenceux, and Norroy.
Six HERALDS, and.
Four PURSUIVANTS, whose precedence is regulated by seniority of appointment.
The Insignia of the college are:--
Argent, a cross gules between four doves, their dexter wings expanded and inverted, azure. Crest: in a ducal coronet proper, a dove rising azure. Supporters: two lions rampant gardant argent, ducally gorged or--COLLEGE OF ARMS.
The Lyon Office, Edinburgh, and the Office of Arms, Dublin, have cognizance of the heraldry of Scotland and Ireland respectively, as the College of Heralds has of that of England and Wales.
KINGS OF ARMS. The principal herald of England was of old designated King of the heralds, a title which seems to have been exchanged for King of arms about the reign of Henry IV. The kings of arms at present existing in England are three; Garter, Clarenceux, and Norroy, the two latter called provincial kings of arms, besides Bath, who is not a member of the college. Scotland is placed under an officer called Lyon King of Arms, and Ireland is the province of one named Ulster King of Arms.
Garter King of arms was instituted by King Henry V. A.D. 1417, for the service of the most noble order bearing that name, which had hitherto been attended by Windsor herald. He was also made chief of the heralds, and had apartments within the castle of Windsor assigned to him. His official costume as principal king of arms of the English is a surcoat of velvet, richly embroidered with the arms of the sovereign, a crown, and a collar of SS, while the insignia belonging to the office are,--
Argent, S.George's cross; on a chief azure, a ducal coronet encircled with a garter, between a lion of England[ducally crowned] on the dexter side, and a fleur-de-lis on the sinister, all or. [Guillim, 1632.] [Formerly, 1559, a dove in the first quarter.]
Clarenceux is the second in rank of the kings of arms, and the establishment of his office has been traced to the reign of Henry V. His ancient title was Roy des armes des Clarenceux. that is of the people of Clarence, a district which comprehends the castle and town of Clare, in Suffolk, but his province is all England to the south of the Trent. Clarenceux has a crown, collar of SS., and surcoat like those worn by Garter, and the insignia of his office are,--
Argent, S.George's cross; on a chief gules, a lion of England[ducally crowned] or. [Formerly, 1595, a fleur-de-lis in the first quarter.]
Norroy is the most ancient of the three kings of arms, but the lowest in order of precedence. The name first occurs in the reign of Edward II., and the province assigned to this officer is that part of England which lies north of the river Trent, whence his title, Roy de armes des Norreys, a word used by Peter of Langtoft and other old historians in the sense of Northmen. His crown, surcoat, and collar, resemble those of the other kings. His official arms are,--
Argent, S.George's cross; on a chief[per pale azure and] gules, a lion of England[ducally crowned] between a fleur-de-lis on the dexter side, and a key, wards in chief, on the sinister, all or.
Bath king of arms, although not a member of the college, takes precedence next after Garter. His office was created in 1725 for the service of the order of the Bath, and he was constituted Gloucester king of arms(an office originally instituted by Richard III., in whose reign it also became exsinct), and principal herald of the parts of Wales. He was likewise empowered to grant arms(either alone, or jointly with Garter) to persons residing within the principality.
Lord Lyon king of arms is the chief heraldic officer for Scotland. The title is derived from the lion in the insignia of the kingdom.
Ulster king of arms has Ireland for his province. A king of arms called Ireland existed at least as early as the reign of Richard II. There is reason to believe that the succession remained uninterrupted for about a century, after which it probably became extinct. Ulster was created to supply the vacancy by Edward VI. on Candlemas day, 1551. His official arms are,--
Or, a cross gules; upon a chief of the last a lion passant guardant between a harp on the dexter side and a portcullis on the sinister, all gold.
HERALDS: there are at present six heralds, who rank according to their seniority in office. They derive their titles from certain districts, with which, however, they have no official connection. They are as follows.
Chester herald: whose office is said to have been instituted in the reign of King Edward III.
Lancaster herald: perhaps instituted by King Edward III. in the 34th year of his reign, when he created his son John of Gaunt duke of Lancaster.
Richmond herald: probably instituted by King Edward IV., in the 12th year of whose reign this herald was made Guienne king of Arms.
Somerset herald: is said to have been instituted by King Henry VII., in the 9th year of his reign.
Windsor herald: instituted by King Edward III. in the 38th year of his reign, at which time he was in France.
York herald: of the establishment of this office there does not appear to be any record.
The official costume of a herald consists of an embroidered satin surcoat of the royal arms, and a collar of SS.
There have been at different periods several other heralds, whose titles are now laid aside. Such were Falcon, first appointed by King Edward III., and Blanch sanglier by Richard III. Heralds extraordinary have also been occasionally created, as Edmondson was by the title of Mowbray, in 1764.
PURSUIVANTS: the follower or messenger attendant upon the superior officers at arms was regarded as a noviciate, and candidate for the offices of herald and king, and called the Pursuivant. There are at present four, distinguished by the names following:--
Rouge croix, generally considered to be the most ancient. The title was doubtless derived from the cross of S.George.
Blue mantle, instituted by Edward III. (or, according to some, Henry V.) and named from the robes of the order of the Garter.
Rouge dragon, founded by Henry VII., on the day before his coronation, the name being derived from the supposed ensign of Cadwaladyr.
Portcullis, instituted by the same monarch, from one of whose badges the title was derived.
The ancient costume of the king's pursuivants was a surcoat, embroidered with the royal arms, and worn sideways, that is. with one sleeve hanging down before, and the other behind. Their tabards are of damask silk.
There were also Pursuivants of the nobility who wore coats of their lords' arms, in the same manner as the king's pursuivants did, but they had no connection with the College of Arms.
Heraldry(fr. armoirie, or La science des armes et de blason): the name of Heraldry has been applied to the Art, or(as some with reason contend that it should be called) the Science which deals with observed, deciphering, and recording the coats of arms borne by the ancestors of the nobility and gentry of the present day; because in the sixteenth and seventeenth century this became an important part of the duties of the Heralds. It will be seen that a series of Visitations(q.v.) were commanded to be made throughout the country for this purpose, namely, to collect and register, as far as possible, all armorial and genealogical information. These visitations extend from 1528 to 1686, and then it is that we find the term Heraldry applied to the study, instead of 'Armorie' and the like. At the same time, too, it may be said to have a wider signification.
There was, however, an extensive literature bearing on the subject going on simultaneously with these visitations. One of the earliest, if not the earliest book on the subject, is "The Boke of S.Alban's," first printed in 1486, the third part of which relates to 'coot armuris' beginning, "Here shall shortlie be shewyd to blase all armys if ye entende diligently to your rulys."
The following titles of books, with the date of their first publication, will shew perhaps more clearly the attention paid to the study, and the light in which it was viewed, than any general remarks. It is probable that the visitations gave considerable impetus to the study.
Gerard Leigh's "Accedence of Armorie," London, 1562.
John Bossewell's "Works of Armorie," London, 1572.
Sir John Ferne's "Blazon of Gentrie," London, 1586.
Sir William Segar's "Book of Honour," London, 1590.
William Wyrley's "The True Use of Armorie," 1592.
William Camden's "Discourse of Orders in Britain," [in his Britannia, 1594; also, "The Discoverie of certain Errors in the 'Britannia' ed. of 1594, "by Ralph Brooke, 4to., 1596, reprinted in 1724].
Edmund Bolton's "Elements of Armories," London, 1610.
John Guillim's "Display of Heraldry," first published 1611.
Thomas Milles, "The Catalogue of Honour, or Treasure of true Nobilitie," London, 1610(chiefly compiled by Robert Glover, his uncle).
Andrè Favine's "Theater of Honour and Knighthood," London, 1623.
James Yorke's "Union of Honour," London, 1640.
Nicholas Upton's "De Studio Militari Libri Quatuor;" cum notis Ed. Bissæi, Lond. 1654. [Upton, however, wrote C. A.D. 1450.]
Sylvanus Morgan's "The Sphere of Gentry," London, 1661.
John Selden's "Titles of Honour," London, 1614, (later ed. 1672).
Sir George Mackenzie's "Science of Herauldry," Edinburgh, 1680.
John Gibbon's "Introductio ad Latinam Blasoniam," Lond. 1682.
Randle Holme's "Academie of Armorie," Chester, 1688.
Samuel Kent's "Grammar of Heraldry," London, 1716.
Alexander Nisbet's "System of Heraldry," 2vols., Edinburgh, 1722-42.
Joseph Edmondson's "Complete Body of Heraldry," 2vols., London, 1780.
James Dallaway's "Inquiries into the Origin and Progress of Heraldry," Gloucester, 1793.
"Anecdotes of Heraldry," Worcester, 1795.
It will be seen by the above titles of books(representing the chief works published at the time) that, with the one exception of Guillim's work, the term Heraldry is not used till quite the end of the seventeenth century; while in the next century it appears to be used exclusively in describing the study of coat-armour and all that belongs to it.
The greater part of the early treatises, and much of the later works, is taken up with fanciful disquisition, based on the guesses of the meaning of arms adopted, and attempts to adopt a scientific method in blazoning; so much so, that a large number of forms are described in very technical language, which were never borne on any coat of arms at all. A fashion had arisen also of ascribing arms not only to the early Saxon kings, and also to the imaginary British kings of the Arthurian romances, but also to the chief personages of sacred and classical history. In Sylvanus Morgan's book we are gravely told that "to Adam was assigned a shield gules, and to Eve another argent, which latter Adam bore over his as an inescutcheon, his wife being sole heiress." Again, "that Adam after the fall bore a garland of fig-leaves, which Abel quartered with 'Argent, an apple vert,' in right of his mother." From Gerard Legh we learn that the arms of Alexander the Great were--
Gules, a golden lyon sitting on a chayer and holding a battayle-axe of silver.
In some instances the writers invented the arms themselves, in others they took idle gossip; but the worst part was that these legendary arms were not confined to the literature, but were carved in wood and stone, and such has been the extent that with respect to personages of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the fictitious arms cannot be distinguished from the genuine ones; thus the science has been obscured, and it is not too much to say, in consequence of some of their extravagancies, brought into ridicule.
The material, however, for the study of Heraldry is still very extensive. Apart from a very large number of monuments remaining in cathedrals and churches, a considerable amount of sculpture on domestic as well as on ecclesiastical buildings, and some stained glass in church windows, and in those of old manor-houses, as well as here and there paintings on panels, &c., go to supply our store of documentary evidence. A large number of the Visitations were taken happily before the Puritans had their way, when, as William Dowsing's Journal shews, as well as other evidence, superstition was made the excuse for pure havoc. It was only necessary to say that a monument was superstitious, or a coat of arms in a window was profane, and the axe and hammer shattered it. The work, however, done during these Visitations does not appear to have been so complete or so accurate as it might have been: certainly it would be much more satisfactory to have the originals before us now.
But the most important material we have are the rolls of arms, beginning as early as Henry III.'s reign. The following is a list of the chief rolls, only a few of which have been as yet printed:--
.... Acre roll, MS. Harl. 6137, and No. 158 MS.; Dodsworth,
MS. Ashmole, 1120[dated 145, 5086; MSS. Harl.
1192, but probably later]. 4033, 5803, 6137, 6589.
1245. Roll MS. in the College of 1322. Boroughbridge Roll, MS. Ash-
Arms, L. 14. mole, 831.
1260. Roll, MS. Harl. 6589. 1338. Roll, Grimaldi's MS.
1280. ,, MSS. Harl. 6137, 6589. 1346. ,, MS. College of Arms;
1286. ,, MS. Harl. 6137. MS. Harl. 6589.
1290. ,, MS. Harl. 6137. 1348. Calais Bannerets MS. Ash-
1296. ,, MS. Harl. 6137. mole, 1120, Cotton MS.
1298. Falkirk Roll, MS. Harl. 6589. Tiberius E. 9, MSS. Harl.
1299. Roll, MSS. Harl. 6137, 6589. 6589, 6595.
1300. ,, MSS. Harl. 6137, 6589. 1348. Calais Knights MS. Harl.
1300. Carlaverock Poem, MS. Cot- 6589.
ton, Caligula, A. 18. 1395. Roll, Newling's MS.
1308. Dunstaple Roll, MSS. Harl. 1418. Rouen Roll, MS. Ashmole,
6137, 6589. 1120; MS. Harl. 6137.
1310. Roll, MS. Harl. 6589. 1512. Parliament Roll, MS. Cole,
1312. ,, MS. Queen's Coll. Oxon, 30.
A history of the origin and first actual instances of the used of armorial bearings, clearly distinguishing between true and regular coat-armour, and the classic devices and badges, symbols and the like, borne by tribes in warfare, or carved on their shields, and, above all, clearing it of the fancies and fictions with which the study has been surrounded in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and by which it has been obscured, still remains to be written.
Heraud, and Herault. See Herald.
Hercules: this figure occurs on one coat of arms, and one only, so far as has been observed. He is represented as holding a quadrant.
Azure, the figure of Hercules[in one blazon 'a savage'] wreathed about the head and middle with laurel-leaves, holding in the dexter hand a quadrant, and therewith looking towards a star in the dexter chief; and in the sinister hand holding a club all proper--OSWALD, Scotland.
Hérisson, (fr.): Hedgehog.
Hérissonné: used in French examples of a cat 'with its back up.'
Hermine, or semé d'hermines: the French manner of spelling Ermine(q.v.).
Heron, (fr. héron): this and its allies the hernshaw, bittern, and fencock, are borne by several families; but, as will be seen in most cases, allusively. Probably no great distinction can be made in the several drawings except, perhaps, in the case of the spoonbill; indeed, there appears to be some confusion in blazoning the arms bearing these devices, and a further confusion between such and those bearing the crane and the stork. It will, however, be seen that the Heron proper is found in arms of ancient date. It is generally drawn standing but rare examples occur of it being blazoned volant.
Odinel HERON d'azur a trois herons d'argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Odynel HERON de argent a iij herons de azure--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Roger HERON de goules a iij herons de argent--Ibid.
Sire Johan HEROUN de azure iij herouns de argent--Ibid.
Sable, a heron within a bordure argent--MATTHEWS.
Azure, a bendlet between two herons[otherwise blazoned cranes] argent--HYGHAM.
Gules, three herons argent, a bend engrailed or--HERON[in Canterbury Cathedral].
Sable, a bend argent between three heron's heads erased of the second--GLOVER.
Gules, three heronshaws[otherwise blazoned storks, and perhaps really pewits] or--TYRWHITT, co. Lincoln.
Or, on a chevron engrailed sable between three heronshaws[otherwise blazoned storks] argent, a plain chevron or--LYMINGTON, co. Chester.
Argent, a bittern[otherwise blazoned 'a fencock'] sable, membered gules--MATTHEW.
Sable, a bittern argent--ASBITTER.
Gules, three bitterns argent--BITTENNECK, or BITTERER.
Azure, on a bend or, within a bordure argent, three bitterns sable, membered gules--READE.
Gules, on a fesse or between three mascles ermine, each charged with three drops sable, a trefoil slipped azure between two bittern's heads erased of the field beaked argent, and about their necks a leash of the last--THACKER, co. Derby, granted 1538.
Or, a fesse wavy sable between three fencocks proper--FENCOTE, co. York.
Or, a heron volant proper; on a chief sable three escallops of the first--GRAHAM, Scotland.
With these may be associated the spoonbill(platalea), of which the head occurs only, and the French aigrette, with its remarkable tuft, but no example of an egret has been noted in English arms.
Argent, three spoonbill's heads erased argent beaked or--Sir John LACY, Cornwall.
D'azure, à trois aigrettes d'argent becqueés et membreés sable--ALLIGRET, Champagne.
Heronshaw, or Hernshaw. See Heron.
Herring, (fr. hareng, old fr. hairaing), is found more especially for the sake of the play upon its name, and this from the earliest period. The cob, which also supplies a convenient pun, is probably meant for a young herring, though the term is used for the young of other fish.
Sire Johan HERINGAUD, de azur crusule de or a vi harengs de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
[On seal of John HERINGOL, of Westwell, Kent, temp. HEN. III., is a shield with a border charged with six herrings.]
Sable, three herrings hauriant argent, a chief or--Sir Thomas KYRTON, Sheriff of London, 1533.
Vert, a herring hauriant argent--Benjamin HARENC[Sheriff of Kent, 1777].
Azure, semee of crosslets, three herrings hauriant two and one argent--HERRING, Bp. of Bangor, 1738; Abp. of York, 1743; Abp. of Cant. 1747-57.
Sable, a fesse between six herrings[or sprats] hauriant or--SPRATTON.
Sable, a chevron argent between three cob-fish naiant or; a chief of the last--COBB, Sandringham. [A monument in Adderbury church, Oxfordshire, where a branch of the family resided.]
Gules, a chevron wavy between three cob-fish naiant argent, on a chief of the last two sea-cobs[or gulls] sable[and in one case given as two shovellers sable beaked and legged or]--COBB, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire.
Party per chevron sable and argent, in chief two sea-cobs[i.e. gulls] respecting each other, and in base a herring naiant or--COBB, Snetisham, Norfolk.
Per chevron gules and sable, in chief two swans respectant, in base a herring proper[otherwise blazoned a herring-cob]--COBB, co. Oxford, [Baronet, 1662].
Of the same family(clupeid) as herring are other fishes which are named in heraldry, viz. the sprat, the garvin, and, on account of the name of the bearer, the spalding, which is perhaps, after all, but a local name. There is also the pilchard(Germ. pelzer, lat. clupea pilchardus) of the same family.
Argent, a chevron sable, between three sprats naiant proper--Thomas SPRATT, Bp. of Rochester, 1684-1713.
Azure, three garvin fishes naiant fessways in pale argent--GARVIE, Scotland.
Argent, a chevron sable between three spaldings azure--SPRATT[or SPROTT, Harleian MS. 1404].
Gules, a chevron or between three pilchards naiant argent--Job MILITON[Governor of S.Michael's Mount, temp. HEN. VIII.]
Argent, a chevron gules between two roses in chief and a pilchard naiant--ROSCARRECK, Cornwall.
Herse, (fr.): a Portcullis, also a Harrow.
Hersée, i.q. coulissé: closed with a portcullis.
Heydodde. See Bluebottle.
Hibou, (fr.): owl.
Hie, (fr.): the paviour's beetle drawn like a fusil with rings.
Hill and Hillock. See Mount.
Hilt and Hilted. See Sword.
Hind. See Deer.
Hinge, (lat. cardo): hinges occur but in one coat of arms, affording a characteristic example of the play upon the name.
Sable, a fesse between three door-hinges argent--CARDINALL, Hadley, Suffolk[in the arms of the Essex branch of this family the fesse is engrailed].
Hirondelle, (fr.); Swallow.
Hog. See Boar.
Hogsheads. See Tun.
Holly, (fr. houx): this is found rarely as a tree or bush; but the branches and sprigs often occur; still more so the leaves.
Gules, a boar argent, armed, bristled, collared and chained or, tied to a hollybush on a mount in base both proper--OWEN, co. Pembroke.
Argent, a holly-tree eradicated proper; on a chief engrailed azure a lion passant between two trefoils slipped or--DOWLING, Kilkenny[granted 1662].
Argent, a sheaf of arrows gules between three holly-branches[otherwise blazoned branches of holly, or sprigs of holly, and bundles of holly] each of as many leaves proper handed of the second--IRVINE, Scotland.
Argent, a holly-branch between three bay-leaves slipped vert--FOULIS, Edinburgh.
Argent, a chevron pean between three hollen-bushes[sic] fructed proper--BUSHNAN, co. Essex[granted 1784].
Argent, three holly-leaves pendent proper--INWYNE, Cumberland.
Argent, a battle-axe between three holly-leaves in chief and a bugle-horn in base vert garnished gules--BURNET, Scotland.
Gules, on a bend argent six holly-leaves, two, two, and two bendwise in fesse sable--RYON.
Holy Lamb. See Lamb, Holy.
Homme d'armes: i.q. man in armour.
Hone-stone: this singular device in found in one coat of arms only, and that on account of the name.
Argent, two bars wavy between three hone-stones azure--HONE, Devon. [Quartered by BODLEY].
Honeysuckle: this, or the woodbine, is found but rarely in coats of arms.
Sable, on a fesse or between three honeysuckles argent two lions passant azure--MASTER, co. Wilts.
Azure, three woodbine leaves argent--BROWNE.
Argent, three woodbine leaves bendways vert two and one--THEME
Honour point. See Point.
Honoured: occasionally used by heraldic writers in the sense of crowned.
Hood: Falcons are sometimes borne hooded.
Hoofed. See Unguled.
Hook: it will, perhaps, be better to group under one head the chief varieties of hooks, though they are used for various purposes. They may be enumerated as follows:--
Boat-hook: this occurs in but one coat of arms.
Or, an annulet beset with three boat-hooks in triangle sable--BROBACH.
Fish-hook: this occurs in at least two coats of arms, and the cross hameçon, (see Cross, §22), is supposed to have its termination in the form of fish hooks.
Sable, a chevron between three fish-hooks argent--MEDVILLE.
Argent, a fesse sable between three fish-hooks gules--PENKERCH, co. Lincoln; also BOSDON.
Flesh-hook: a fork for the purpose of taking meat from the cauldron. The first figure is perhaps the more correct in form. The second figure is sometimes erroneously blazoned a Pike-staff.
Argent, a fesse between three flesh-hooks sable--PENKERIDGE.
Argent, three flesh-hooks(fig. 2) sable, two and one--WALLEY.
Pot-hooks, which appear to be the same as the hangers are borne only by German families; at least no example with a true English name has been observed. One of the forms it takes is given in the margin.
Argent, a hanger, or kettle-iron, expanded gules--KETTLER.
Argent, a double-hooked hanger closed in pale sable--ZERTSCHEN.
Rope-hook: this occur in but one coat of arms.
Argent, a chevron azure between three rope-hooks sable--ROPE-MAKERS' Company, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Tenter-hook: two forms of this charge occur, as shewn in the margin.
Sable three tenter-hooks argent--CLARKE, or CLERKES.
Argent, three tenter-hooks sable--CLARK.
Argent, a fesse between three tenter-hooks sable--PENERECHE.
Argent, two tenter-hooks[elsewhere harts' horns] in saltire sable--LACHAULT.
Thatcher's-hook: this appears to be borne by two branches of the family of CHOWNE, according to the blazon. But the drawing is so vague, that they have been blazoned in one case as stag's attires.
Gules, three thatcher's hooks in fesse argent--CHOWNE, Kent.
Sable, three thatcher's hooks in pale argent--CHOWNE, Berks.
See also Sickle called sometimes a pruning-hook; Horsepicker, called erroneously a hay-hook. The shave-hook is given under Plumbers' implements.
Hooped: having iron hoops or bands of another tincture, e.g. Buckets, Water-bougets.
Hop: this plant occurs under the form of hop-vines, hop-bines, and hop-poles.
Argent, on a bend engrailed gules, between two hop-vines with poles proper growing out of mounts vert, three stag's head cabossed or--BOORMAN, Kent.
Argent, on three mounts vert as many hop-poles sustaining their fruit proper[otherwise as many hop-vines with their poles proper]--DARKER, London.
Argent, three hop-poles sustaining their fruit proper[otherwise three hop-bines fructed on their poles proper]--HOBILLION, London. [The same from a base vert; HOUBLON.]
Hopper. See Mill-hopper.
Hopping: in one case used of a lion.
Horeler, i.q. Oreiller. See Cushion.
Horn. 1. See Bugle-horn and Trumpet. 2. Ink-horn under penner. 3. Stag's horns under Attires and Deer. 4. Of a mullet.
Horned, (fr. acorné) of the Bull, Unicorn, and Owl, when the horns are of another tincture.
Hornet. See Bee.
Horns of animals, (fr. cornes): the horns of stags(attires, q.v.), though generally affixed to the head or the scalp, are at times borne separately, but such arms appear to be, as a rule, of foreign origin. Of other animals only the cow's horns have been noticed as borne separately.
Argent, a stag's horn in bend gules--REINSTEIN.
Argent, a hart's attire sable--ZAKESLEY.
Argent, two hart's horns in saltire sable--LACHAULT.
Argent, three stag's horns barways sable, the top to the dexter side--COUNTESSE.
Azure, two cow's horns endorsed or between four crosses crosslet fitchy argent--BURDON.
Horse, (fr. cheval): the horse does not occur in ancient rolls of arms, and less often than would be expected in modern coats. It is represented as standing(or upright), as trotting, as courant, or in full career(fr. galoppant, échappé), and as salient, or rearing(fr. acculé and cabré, also effaré): it may be saddled(fr. sellé), and bridled(fr. bridé); also the general terms for harnessed, and with trappings, are found in French bardé, houssé, and caparaçonné, while the French term gai is used when the horse is at liberty, without any harness whatever.
In English arms the horse is sometimes represented as spancelled, a term used when two of its legs are fettered to a log of wood. Very frequently only horses' heads are given. The term nag is sometimes used for a horse, and colt also appears as a charge. A horse is borne in the insignia of the House of Hanover, and is found blazoned as the White horse of Hanover.
Burgh of DORNOCH.
Argent, a horse standing sable--BROMFALING.
Sable, a horse upright argent bridled or--CAVELL, Devon.
Argent, a horse passant sable bridled and saddled or--ROSTLINGS.
Argent, on a mount in base vert a horse trotting sable furnished gules; in chief a star of the third--TROTTER, Scotland.
Argent, a fesse between a horse courant in chief, and a water bouget in base sable--COULTHARD, co. Lancaster.
Gules, a horse[argent] in full career--House of HANOVER[ancient SAXONY].
Sable, a horse passant argent, spancelled in both legs on the near side gules--PERCIVAL, Hants.
Gules, three horse's heads couped argent bridled sable--HORSLEY, Bp. of S.David's, 1788; of Rochester, 1792; afterwards of S.Asaph, 1802-6.
Sable, three nag's heads erased argent--JONES, Bp. of S.Asaph, 1692-1703.
Gules, on a bend engrailed or, between two nag's heads erased argent, three fleurs-de-lys of the field; in chief a mullet for difference--PEPYS, Bp. of Sodor and Man, 1840; of Worcester, 1841-46.
Argent, a fesse between three nags passant sable--CULLIFORD, co. Dorset.
Gules, three colts courant argent, a fleur-de-lis or in the centre for difference--FRY.
Argent, a fesse azure between three colts in full speed sable--COLTE, Essex.
Sable, a fesse ermine between three colts passant argent--STAMP, co. Berks and Oxon.
Horse-fly. See Gad-fly.
Horse-shoe, (fr. fer-de-cheval): the horse-shoe is found as a charge amongst the earliest arms we have. There are usually six or eight nail-holes, which should be of the tincture of the field; but when of another tincture probably it is intended for that of the nails(fr. cloué).
Argent, a horse-shoe azure--The burgh royal of DORNOCH, Scotland.
Argent, six horse-shoes sable, 3, 2, 1[also, Gules, seven mascles conjoined or; on a label azure, nine horse-shoes argent]--FERRERS[Planché writes, "Three or six horse-shoes are said to have formed the early coat of the FERRERS, Earls of Derby, who afterwards bore 'Vairy or and gules, and the horse shoes as a border.'"]
Gilbert de UMFREVILE, d'or ung quintefoile de goules, ung bordure d'azur ferrs de goulz--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
William de MONTGOMERY, d'ermyne a la bordure de goules et les fers en la bordure--Ibid.
Sire Johan de BAKEPUCE, de goules a ij barres de argent en le chef iij fers de cheval de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Argent, three horse-shoes sable pierced of the field--FARRIERS' Company[Inc. 1670].
Or, on a bend engrailed sable, three horse-shoes argent--REBERT FERRAR, Bp. of S.David's, 1548-54.
Argent, five horse-shoes in saltire gules, nail-holes or--FERRERS.
Vert, on a pale gules between two horse-shoes, each horse-shoe between three nails, two in chief and one in base, all meeting with their points to the shoe, argent; a sword in a scabbard azure, hilt, pommel, and studding of the scabbard or; on the point of the sword a cap of maintenance gules turned up ermine; on a chief per pale of the fifth and purple, a boar's head couped of the third between two demi-roses, the dexter of the second barbed of the first, the sinister argent barbed vert each issuing rays from its centre pointing to the boar's head gold--City of GLOUCESTER. [Arms obtained by Sir Richard Bell, temp. HEN. VIII., replacing the more simple and original arms, "Or, three chevrons gules between ten torteauxes three, three, three, and one."]
Argent, six horse-shoes sable, three, two and one studded with gilt nails--Augustinian Priory of LITTLE DARLEY, Derbyshire.
[Horse-shoes are borne also by families of ENDESORE; HODSON; PITT; SMITH, Eastbourne; SOUTH, Wilts; COOK; VYTAN-GIMPUS; BOHEM; BOOTH; besides the various families of FERRERS, FERRIER, FERRARS, and FARRAR. Borne also by the town of OAKHAM, and the Cistercian Abbey of FOUNTAINS, Yorkshire.]
Horse-picker, or, as it is call also, Dog-hook, or Hay-hook: a very singular charge, and probably peculiar to the arms of METRINGHAM.
Vert, a chevron between three horse-pickers argent--METRINGHAM. [From Glover's Ordinary and MS. Harl. 1386.]
Horse-leech: one coat of arms only has this device.
Azure, three horse-leeches--PREEDE, co. Salop[MS. Harl. 7570].
Hose: these are apparently borne on one ancient coat of arms.
Argent, three hose gules--HESE, Roll, temp. ED. I., penes Soc. Ant.
Houce des armes, (old fr.): a surcoat embroidered with armorial bearings.
Houlette, (fr.): a shepherd's crook.
Hound. See Dog.
Hour-glass, or Sand-glass: this device is borne only on two or three coats of arms. In connection with the Bible, it has possibly a reference to the preaching by the hour.
Party per chevron embattled or and gules, three roses counterchanged slipped vert; on a chief of the second three hour-glasses argent framed of the first--John WHITE, Bp. of Lincoln, 1534; of Winchester, 1557-59.
Vert, in chief the holy Bible expanded proper; in base a sand-glass running argent--JOASS, Scotland.
Vert, on a chevron between three hour-glasses argent as many trefoils slipped of the first--SHADFORTH, Northumberland.
Vert, three hour-glasses in bend proper between two bendlets argent--ANDERTON, co. Lancaster.
House-fly. See Fly.
House-leak. See Sengreen.
Housing: the embroidered caparison of a horse. See Caparison.
Houssé: of a horse having a housing, horse-cloth.
Housseau, or Housette: described as a kind of medieval boot, and appears somewhat equivalent to the English buskin. Used in several cases in French arms.
Houx, (fr.): holly.
Hovering. Of a bird: see disclosed under Wings.
Howdah. See Elephant.
Huchet, (fr.): a bugle.
Huit: an old term used for owl.
Huitfoil. See Foil.
Hulk and Hull. See Ship.
Hulotte, (fr.): owlett.
Human figure. See Man.
Human skull. See Bones.
Humetty, (fr. alésé), is a term applied to certain ordinaries instead of couped, which is applied to charges, and especially those of animals . Applied to the fesse and the bar, humetty signifies that both ends are cut off so as not to reach to the edge of the shield. Applied to crosses(see Cross, §7) and saltires, all four ends are so treated; and when there is more than one of either of these in the same shield they are to be drawn humetty, though it be not expressed. It does not appear that a bend is ever humetty, and the single bendlet so treated would be blazoned a baton, q.v. Nor has any example been observed of a pale or pile so blazoned; the chevron and the pallet are sometimes couped, but the term humetty seems not to be applied to them.
Sable, a fesse humetty argent--BOSTOCK, Cheshire.
Argent, a fesse engrailed humetty sable, between three chaplets of holly-leaves proper--Nicholas BUBBEWYTH, Bp. of London, 1406; Bp. of Salisbury, 1407; afterwards of Bath and Wells, 1408-24.
Ermine, on three bars humetty gules, nine escallops or three, three, and three--John de DABRICHECOURT, Roll, temp. RIC. II.
Argent, two bendlets humetty purpure--KEYE, Oxon, (gr. 1688).
Gules, a fesse humetty ermine; over all a pale couped ermines--SPONNE.
Per fesse or and argent; in chief three palets couped in base gules--KEITH, Scotland.
Per pale argent and or, three palets couped gules--BARNARDER.
Gules, five palets raguled, trunked, couped or--SOMERVILLE.
The Humet is a term sometimes, but seldom, used for a fesse, or bar humetty, i.e. couped at each of the extremities.
Or, three humets sable, charged with as many annulets argent--AMBROSE, Lancashire.
Hunting-horn. See Bugle-horn.
Huppe, (fr.): a Pewit. See under Lapwing.
Hure, (fr.): the name given to the head of the wild boar when couped or erased.
Hurst. See Wood.
Hurt, (fr. heurte, but more frequently tourteau, d'azur): a roundle azure, said to be named from the hurtle or whortle-berry. The term does not appear to be used before the seventeenth century. In old arms the 'rondels de azure' and pellets de azure signify the same thing. See also under roundle. The term hurty, signifying semé of hurts, is also employed.
Sire Walter BASCREVILE, de argent a iij rondels de azure e un cheveron de goules, crusule de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Monsire de BASKERVILE, d'argent a une cheveron gules charge de trois lis d'or; entre le cheveron trois pelletts d'asur--Roll, temp. ED. III.
D'argent, a trois tourteaux d'azur--LANCESSEUR, Normandie.
Argent, a fesse sable in chief three hurts--LANGLEY, co. Gloucester.
Or, a hurt--HURTLE[Randle Holmes' MS.]
Argent, six hurts, two, two, and two--SHIELDS.
Argent, two bars azure; in chief three hurts--CARNABY.
Argent, three bars azure; in chief as many hurts--BASSETT.
Gules, fretty argent; on each joint a hurt--WYMESWOLD.
Azure, a buck trippant or between three pheons argent; within a bordure engrailed of the second hurty[or better 'charged with eight hurts']--PARKER, co. Cambridge.
Husked; when the husk is of a different tincture-e.g. of an acorn. See under Oak.
Hyacinth. See Tenné.
Hydra. See Cockatrice.