The surname of HEAPE was a locational name 'of Heap', a township in the parish of Bury, near Manchester. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. A charter concerning a gift of land in this district is signed by Robert de Hep, during the reign of Henry III (1216-1272). Early records of the name mention William Heape of Yorkshire, who was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Many factors contributed to the establishment of a surname system. For generations after the Norman Conquest of 1066 a very few dynasts and magnates passed on hereditary surnames, but the main of the population, with a wide choice of first-names out of Celtic, Old English, Norman and Latin, avoided ambiguity without the need for a second name. As society became more stabilized, there was property to leave in wills, the towns and villages grew and the labels that had served to distinguish a handful of folk in a friendly village were not adequate for a teeming slum where perhaps most of the householders were engaged in the same monotonous trade, so not even their occupations could distinguish them, and some first names were gaining a tiresome popularity, especially Thomas after 1170. The hereditary principle in surnames gained currency first in the South, and the poorer folk were slower to apply it. By the 14th century however, most of the population had acquired a second name. Later instances of the name include Edmund Fenton, of Heap, 1574, who was listed in the Wills at Chester (1545-1620). Richard Heap, of Rawtenstall in 1618, ibid. John Heap, of Broadroad, parish of Bury in 1638. Originally the coat of arms identified the wearer, either in battle or in tournaments. Completely covered in body and facial armour, the knight could be spotted and known by the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped garment which enveloped him. Between the 11th and 15th centuries, it became customary for surnames to be assumed in Europe, but were not commonplace in England or Scotland before the Norman Conquest of 1066. They were found in the Domesday Book of 1086. Those of gentler blood assumed surnames at this time, but it was not until the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) that second names became general practice amongst all people. The associated coat of arms is recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884.