The Irish O'Dubhaggain has been transliterated as Duggan, Dugan and Doogan. The best known O'Dubhagain sept was located in Fermoy barony in Northern Cork. Another was located in southern Galway. Dugan and Dougan were the favoured spellings in east Ulster. The more numerous Duggan families predominate in Munster where their noticeably heavier distribution in County Tipperary denotes descent from the Fermony sept. The name was originally brought into Ireland in the wake of the Norman Conquest of 1066. Ireland was one of the earliest countries to evolve a system of hereditary surnames. They came into being fairly generally in the 11th century, and indeed a few were formed before the year 1000. Early records mention O'Dubhagain (without surname) 1327. Thomas Duggin was recorded in the year 1379, and Edward Diggin appears in County Yorkshire in 1400. John Dugan, was a prisoner of war in the Tower of London, and liberated in 1413. Most of the European surnames in countries such as England, Scotland and France were formed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The process had started somewhat earlier and had continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the tenth and eleventh centuries people did not have surnames, whereas by the fifteenth century most of the population had acquired a second name.
The name was taken to Scotland by settlers and Adam Dougan in Udingstoune, parish of Douglas, was recorded in 1665. Andrew Dougan in Bouochmore, was recorded in 1677. Scottish surnames fall into two quite distinct groups; those of Gaelic origin and those of English origin. The Gaelic language was brought to Scotland from Ireland around the 5th century AD, displacing the British language (an early form of Welsh) previously spoken there as well as elsewhere. Gaelic was the main language of that part of Scotland not subject to English influence, a rather more extensive area than the present day Highlands and Islands, where Gaelic is still spoken in places. It is from these northwestern and western area of Scotland that surnames of Gaelic origin, now almost universally Anglicized in form, have been disseminated around the world.
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