This surname of DE BONO was originally derived from the Latin personal name of BONUS, a nickname for a good, and kind person. Surnames having a derivation from nicknames form the broadest and most miscellaneous class of surnames, encompassing many different types of origin. The most typical classes refer adjectivally to the general physical aspect of the person concerned, or to his character. Many nicknames refer to a man's size or height, while others make reference to a favoured article of clothing or style of dress. Many surnames derived from the names of animals and birds. In the Middle Ages ideas were held about the characters of other living creatures, based on observation, and these associations were reflected and reinforced by large bodies of folk tales featuring animals behaving as humans. The name was borne by a minor 3rd century Christian saint who was martyred at Rome with eleven companions under the Emporer Vespasian. It was adopted as a given name partly in his honour and partly because of the transparently well-omened meaning. Emililio De Bono (1866-1944) was the Italian Fascist politician and general, born in Cassano d'Adda. He was quadrumvir in Mussolini's march on Rome in 1922, and governor of Tripolitania in 1925, colonial secretary in 1939, and commanded the Italian forces invading Abyssinia (1935). He voted against Mussolini in the Fascist Supreme Countcil in 1943 and was summarily tried and executed as a traiter in Verona. Edward Francis De Bono, born in 1933 is the psychologist and author. He took a degree in medicine at the Royal University of Malta, then went as Rhodes scholar to Christ Church College, Oxford, where he read psychology. The origins of Italian surnames are not clear, and much work remains to be done on medieval Italian records. It seems that fixed bynames, in some cases hereditary, were in use in the Venetian Republic by the end of the 10th century. The typical Italian surname endings are 'i' and 'o', the former being characteristic of northern Italy. The singular form 'o' is more typical of southern Italy.
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