The surname of CRAWFORD was a locational name from any of the various places, throughout the British Isles. The name derived from the Old English word 'CRAWA' (crow) + FORD (a river-crossing). The surname is common in Scotland and in Ulster, where it was brought at the time of the seventeenth century plantation schemes by settlers from Scotland, some of whom gave their name to the town of Crawfordsburn in County Down, others to Crawford's Hill in the parish of Devenish, County Fermanagh, others to Crawfordsland in the parish of Kilbride in County Antrim; others acquired land further west in County Donegal. The name was of territorial origin from the old barony of Crawford in the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. John de Crauford witnessed a charter of lands in the year 1170. Other records of the name mention Hugh de Craueford who appears as a witness in Irvine in 1200. Galfridus de Krauford was documented in Kynalchmund, witnessing a charter to the Abbey of Arbroath in 1219. Hugh of Crauford, knight, held the lands of Draffane, to the Abbey of Kelso in 1271. Nicholas de Crauford of County Somerset, was documented in the year 1273. Sir Reginald de Crawford was the sheriff of Ayrshire in the year 1296. Anne, daughter of John Crawford, was baptised at St. James's, Clerkenwell, London in the year 1685. A. Crawford was buried at St. Thomas The Apostle, London in the year 1744. The origin of badges and emblems, are traced to the earliest times, although, Heraldry, in fact, cannot be traced later than the 12th century, or at furthest the 11th century. At first armorial bearings were probably like surnames and assumed by each warrior at his free will and pleasure, his object being to distinguish himself from others. It has long been a matter of doubt when bearing Coats of Arms first became hereditary. It is known that in the reign of Henry V (1413-1422), a proclamation was issued, prohibiting the use of heraldic ensigns to all who could not show an original and valid right, except those 'who had borne arms at Agincourt'. The College of Arms (founded in 1483) is the Royal corporation of heralds who record proved pedigrees and grant armorial bearings.
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