This surname was derived from a Germanic personal name composed of the elements KUONI (daring and brave) and RAD (counsel) which has probably fallen together with an originally distinct name, in which the first element was KUNI meaning race, people. The given name was extremely popular during the Middle Ages, being a hereditary name in several ruling families and also widely adopted by the people at large. The surname is also borne by Ashkenazic Jews, presumably just as an adoption of the name. The name has numerous variant spellings, and is known throughout Europe in its many forms, and has spread to the United States. The Dutch language is most closely related to Low German, and its surnames have been influenced both by German and French naming practices. The preposition 'van' is found especially with habitation names, and the 'de' mainly with nicknames. CONRAD I (died 918) was the king of Germany, son of the Count of Franconia and nephew of the Emperor Arnulf. He was elected king on the extinction of the direct Carolingian line in 911, and gradually re-established the imperial authority over most of the German princes. He carried on an unsuccessful war with France, and at last fell mortally wounded at Quedlinburg in a battle with the Hungarians. CONDRAD of Montferrat (died 1192) was the Italian crusader, who distinguished himself during the defence of Tyre against Saladin in 1187. In 1192 he was elected king of Jerusalem as consort of the heiress Isabella, daughter of Almalric I, but was murdered by the Assassins before he could be crowned. The origin of badges and emblems, are traced to the earliest times, although, Heraldry, in fact, cannot be traced later than the 12th century, or at furthest the 11th century. At first armorial bearings were probably like surnames and assumed by each warrior at his free will and pleasure, his object being to distinguish himself from others. It has long been a matter of doubt when bearing Coats of Arms first became hereditary. It is known that in the reign of Henry V (1413-1422), a proclamation was issued, prohibiting the use of heraldic ensigns to all who could not show an original and valid right, except those 'who had borne arms at Agincourt'. The College of Arms (founded in 1483) is the Royal corporation of heralds who record proved pedigrees and grant armorial bearings.
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