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- C - Heraldic Terms

Cabled, (fr. cablé): 1. of a cross with a cable pattern, i.e. of twisted rope; 2. of an anchor, &c., having a rope cable.

TRYE.

WENTWORTH. Caboshed, Cabossed, or Caboched, otherwise Trunked(old fr. caboche): terms applied to the heads of beasts, when borne full-faced and with no part of the neck being visible, so that it appears like the marks of a head. An example will be seen above, under bull, also under leopard: in the case of leopards' heads, however, as the word is not found used, it does not appear to be necessary. The term rencontre supplies the nearest equivalent in French heraldry; thus arms here figured would be blazoned in French rencontre de cerf.

Argent, a buck's head caboshed gules, attired or--TRYE, Glouc. Sable, a chevron between three leopard's heads or--WENTWORTH. Argent, in chief, sable three leopard's heads or--NORMAN.

Cabré(fr.) is applied by French heralds to a horse which, brought to a check, is rearing(but not so much as acculé). Cadency, marks of, otherwise called Distinctions, or Differences(fr. brisures): variations of the original arms of a family, or marks attached to them for the purpose of pointing out the several branches, and the relation in which they stand to each other and to their common ancestor. In ancient heraldry "a plain Label" (as Sir N. H. Nicolas remarks), "most frequently azure, appear to have been the distinction of the eldest son and heir apparent;" as, for instance, at the Siege of Caerlaverock, Maurice de BERKELEY, who joined in the expedition, is described as having over his arms(gules, crusilly with a white chevron) a label azure, because his father was still alive:

"E. Morices de Berkelée, Croissillie o un chievron blanc, Ki compaigns fu de cele alée, Ou un label de asur avoit, Banier ot vermeille cum sanc, Por ce que ses peres vivoit."

And again, one bore his arms in no manner different from his father[the Earl of Lennox] except the azure label:

"Cele au Conte de Laonois .... Ne la portoit par nul aconte Patrik de Dunbar, fiz le Conte Fors de une label de inde diverse."

It also appears "that younger sons bore the label variously charged, sometimes with the whole or part of their mother's arms, or the arms of a distinguished family from which they were descended; that more distant branches changed the colours, or charges, of the coat; placed a bend over it; surrounded it with a bordure, or assumed a canton, plain or charged." Although the charge of tinctures, and the addition, removal, or alteration of charges are very frequently marks of cadency, it must not be supposed that all families of the same name, and between whose arms there is some resemblance, are descended from the same ancestors, for the arms of ancient families have often been very unjustly granted with slight alteration to persons whose relation to such families consisted only in similarity of name. The differences now in use may be divided into two classes; those used by the royal family, and those which should be borne by all others. The sons and daughters of the sovereign all bear labels of three points argent. That of the Prince of Wales is plain, but those of the other princes and princesses are charged with crosses, fleur-de-lis, hearts, or other figures for the sake of distinction. Princes and princesses, being the sons and daughters of the above, are distinguished by labels of five points charged in the same manner. All such differences should be borne on the arms, crest, and supporters. The differences now in use for all families except that of the sovereign may be partially traced to the time of Edward III. They are as follows:--



FIRST HOUSE. First son. A label of 3 points. Fourth son. A martlet. Second son. A crescent. Fifth son. An annulet. Third son. A mullet. Sixth son. A fleur-de-lis.

Some heralds pretend that the seventh son was marked by a rose, the eighth by a cross moline, and ninth by eightfoil; but this theory does not seem to be borne out in practice. This first son of the first son of the first house bears a label upon a label(or more agreeably to ancient custom a label of five points). The second a label charged with a crescent, and so on for all other sons of this branch.

SECOND HOUSE. First son. A crescent charged with label of three points. Second son. A crescent charged with a crescent.

And so on for the rest, but it is not usual to bear more than double differences. There are no differences for sisters(except in the royal family), as they are all equal, but they should bear the differences which pertain to their fathers. Crescents, mullets, &c., used as differences, should be drawn smaller than usual, to distinguish them from ordinary charges. They may be placed upon any part of the arms which is most convenient. There does not appear to be any rule respecting their tinctures.

Sire Johan FILOL, de veer a un quarter de goules. Sire Johan son filz meisme les armes en le quarter un molet de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.

Caduceus, (fr. caducée): the rod of Mercury, with wings attached, and two snakes round it. Used chiefly as a crest.

Per saltire or and erminois, on a saltire azure between a caduceus in chief and a pine-apple in base proper, two swords in saltire argent, pomels and hilts gold--BARROW, Bath.

Calamine stone. See Metal. Calf. See Bull.

Caltrap. Caltrap, written also Calthrop, and Galtrap, and by French heralds Chausse-trap, is an abbreviated form of Cheval-trap: in instrument thrown upon the ground to injure feet of horses, consisting of four iron spikes, one of which is ever uppermost.

Argent, three cheval-traps sable--TRAP, Glouc. Azure, a cross between four caltraps or--WESTFALING, Bp. of Hereford, 1586-1603. Vert, on a lion rampant or caltraps sable--LIGHTORLES.

Calvary. See Cross of. Camel: the camel is borne but on few arms. Several branches of the CAMMEL family bear it.

Argent, a chevron between three camels sable--CAMMEL. Azure, a camel statant argent--CAMELL. Argent, a camel passing through a ford of water proper--CAMELFORD. Also borne by the following:--FALLOWERS, Cheshire; FALWITZ, Alderley; CLOVES, Wilts; WHEELER, Surrey; WILKIE of St.Vincent[a camel's head]; STUTOILE[Ibid].

Cameleon. Cameleon, or Chameleon: the proper tincture is green, and it is drawn as in the margin.

Argent, a chevron sable between three cameleons vert--LANDON. Azure, in chief a sun or, in base a chameleon on sandy ground proper--ORY. Sable, three chameleons erect or, within a bordure argent charged with eight martlets sable--WORTHAM.

Camelopardel: the camelopard, or giraffe, with two long horns slightly curved backward, used only as a crest. Campaned: having bells attached. Canary. See Finch.

Candlestick. Candlestick, (fr. chandelier). The taper-candlestick, borne in the arms of the FOUNDERS' Company, and usually drawn as represented in the annexed engraving, has a spike, or, as it is technically termed, a picket, upon which the taper is placed. Vide also Mortcour, which is used at funerals.

Or, three candlesticks sable--KYLE, Scotland. Azure, two candlesticks[? chalices] in fesse or--EMERLE. Ermine, three candlesticks, each enfiled with a wreath of laurel, and in chief ... --TORRENS. .... A book expanded having a candlestick with a lighted candle in it above the book, on the leaves the words 'Lucerna pedibus,' &c.--College of S.Mary, MANCHESTER.

Cannelé, (fr.) invected. Cannet. See Duck. Cannon. See Bell, also Gun. Canting Arms(sometimes called allusive or punning arms, and by French heralds, armes parlantes) are very generally distributed. They are arms containing charges which are allusive to the name of the bearer. A few examples are annexed.

CASTILE. Gules, a castle triple towered or, and argent, a lion rampant gules(sometimes purpure, and often crowned or), quarterly--The kingdom of CASTILE and LEON. Sable, six swallows(fr. hirondelles), 3, 2, 1, argent--ARUNDEL, Wardour, Wilts. Barry of six, argent and gules--BARRY, Ireland. Gules, three covered cups or--BUTLER. [This family was originally named FITZWALTER, and bore Or, a chief indented azure, but one of them being appointed to the office of lord Butler of Ireland, they took the surname of BUTLER at the same time as their arms.] Argent, three eagles displayed gules--EGLESFIELD, Cumb. (Founder of Queen's College, Oxford, 1340). Argent, three eels naiant in pale sable--ELLIS, Norf. Crest, a holy lamb--EVANS, Wales. [This is an allusion to S.John the Baptist; Evan being the Welsh form of the Christian name John.] Gules, on a chevron between three ostrich feathers argent, a pellet(or gun-stone)--FETHERSTON, Herts. Argent, on a mount in base vert, a hart lodged gules--HARTHILL. Crest, a talbot's head couped argent, collared sable, to the collar a ring of the first--HAYWARD, Surrey. [This is a specimen of heraldic allusions of a more recondite character, the reference being to the Saxon haganpeapd. a house-dog.] Or, three boots(hosen) sable--HUSSEY. Azure, a cross moline or--MOLINEUX, Hawkley, Lanc. Gules, a fesse between four dexter hands couped argent--QUATREMAYNE, Oxfordsh. Azure, even acorns, 2, 3, 2, or--SEVENOKE(Lord Mayor of London, 1418). Argent, a stork sable, beaked and membered gules--STARKEY, Chesh. Azure, two trumpets pileways, between eight cross crosslets, 3, 3, 2, or--TRUMPINGTON, Cambr. (Sir Roger de Trumpington, ob. 1289).

Many even of early coats of arms allude, in some way or other, to the names of their bearer, and perhaps more than is commonly suspected would be found to be so, if we could always recover the early chance names given to the charges of which they are composed.

Geoffrey de LUCY, de goules a trois lucies d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III. Nicholas de MOELES, d'argent a deux barres de goules, a trois molets en le chief de goules--Ibid. Thomas CORBETT, d'or deux carbeaux noir--Ibid. Roger de MERLEY, barree d'argent et de goulz, a la bordur d'azure, et merlots d'or en la bordur--Ibid. Odinel HERON d'azur a trois herons d'argent--Ibid.

Arms parlantes do not often occur of later date than King James I., about which time they began to grow into disrepute from ignorance and misapplication, and were nick-named canting or punning arms. They were numerous at all preceding periods, not only in England, but throughout Christendom. Canton, (fr. canton, but also franc quartier appears to be often used in this sense): resembles a first quarter of the shield in form, but of smaller dimensions; its size does not appear to be fixed, but is generally about one-third of the chief. In old French cauntel, (i.e.) canton, is used for Quarter, q.v. When the word is used alone, a dexter canton is intended; it may, however, be placed upon the sinister side, if so blazoned, and when with a bend. Cantons in base occur upon foreign arms, but it is believed are never used in English armory.

SUTTON. The canton is sometimes the only charge in a coat; but generally it is supposed to be an augmentation of the original arms, or a difference.

Argent, a canton sable--Oliver SUTTON, Bp. of Lincoln, 1280-99; Charles SUTTON, Bp. of Norwich, 1792, and Abp. of Canterbury, 1805-28; [also SUTTON, Baron Lexington, 1645, and other families of that name]. Argent, fretty gules, a canton gules--IREBY, Cumberland. Gul. LONGESPE, dazur, a sis liuncels dor--Soun frer au tel a une cauntel dermine--Roll, temp. HEN. III.

Where there is a bordure the canton always surmounts it, and when borne upon a coat consisting of there charges(2 and 1) it generally covers the whole or greater part of the first. If more than three it generally covers the whole of one, if not of more. In very exceptional cases, however(and then the arrangement must be duly described), the canton itself is partially covered by some ordinary(e.g. a bend). It is often charged with another bearing, though generally plain, and the most frequent tincture is ermine, which rather tends to bear out a theory that its origin was suggested by some badge of honour placed upon the shoulder of the warrior.

MARLBOROUGH.

KIRBY[?]. Sable, a lion rampant argent, on a canton of the last a cross gules(i.e. a canton of S.George)--CHURCHILL, Duke of Marlborough. [Arms of Earl of Marlborough, 1689.] Gules, on a bordure sable eight estoiles or; on a canton ermine a lion rampant of the second; in fesse point an annulet of the third for difference--S.John BAPTIST'S College, Oxford[founded by Sir Thomas WHITE, 1557]. Or, three lioncels passant sable langued gules; on a canton of the second three bezants--GODWIN, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1584-90. Monsire Philip le DESPENCER, port barre d'or et d'asur de vj peeces, a une quarter d'ermin--Roll, temp. ED. III. Azure, six lions rampant argent; on a canton or a mullet gules--KIRBY, Kent. [The arms engraved are from Haseley Church, and perhaps are those of LONGESPEE, Earl of Salisbury, with the canton for a difference.] Sire Walter TOUX de sable, billeté de or e un quarter de ermyn--Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire Rauf de ZEFOUL, d'argent, a une croys patee de verd; e en le cauntel un oysel de goulys--Roll, temp. ED. II.

WOODVILLE.

PYPARD. A canton and fesse of the same tincture, as in the arms of WOODVILLE, should join, without even a line to part them. The same remark will apply to the uppermost of two or more bars, when occurring with a canton; but this is not so with a bend. When a canton and chief occur on the same coat the canton overlies it.

Argent, a fesse and canton gules--WOODVILLE. Argent, two bars azure on a canton of the second a cinquefoil or--PYPARD. [From glass formerly at Haseley.] Ernaud de BOYS, argent, deux barres et ung canton goulez--Roll of Arms, temp. HEN. III. Barry of six argent and azure, a chief ermine and a canton of the first--HOTHAM. [In some branches of the family a canton or.] Barry wavy of six argent and sable, a chief gules and a canton ermine--BARLOW, Derby. Barry of six argent and sable; a canton quarterly or and argent--BELSTED, Norfolk. Barry of five argent and gules, a canton as the last; over all a bend sable--Sire Johan du BOYS, Roll of Arms, 1308-14; M. Roger le BOYS, Roll of Arms, 1392-97.

Cantoned. A cross or saltire between four charges is sometimes said to be cantonnée, or cantoned with such charges. A fesse joined to a canton is also sometimes called a fesse cantoned. Cap: the principal caps in use as charges, parts of crests, or accessories to coats of arms, are the following:

Lord Mayor's Cap. The Lord Mayor's cap usually placed over the insignia of the city of London, or arms of a lord mayor, is thus represented. It is worn by the sword-bearer, and is of brown fur.

MAUNDEFELD.

CAPPER. The caps borne by MAUNDEFELD are of a peculiar form, similar to that of the 'Doge's' cap. Those borne by DROKENSFORD, and called pilia pastoralia(if caps at all), were possibly similar.

Quarterly, azure and or four caps counterchanged--DROKENSFORD.

The family of CAPPER bear caps, like the figure annexed.

Argent, three caps sable bended or--CAPPER, Cheshire.

Cardinal's Cap. A Cardinal's cap or hat is always red, and has tassels pendent from its labels in five rows, instituted by Innocent IV., at the Council of Lyons, 1245. The continental archbishops and bishops(especially those of France) bear green hats of the same form over their mitres, the former with five rows of tassels, and the latter with four. A black caps of the same shape, with three rows of tassels, belongs to abbats. Prothonotaries use a similar hat with two rows of tassels. A black hat or cap, with one tassel on each side, belongs to all other clergymen.

Cap of Maintenance. Cap of Dignity or maintenance, called also Chapeau, is a cap generally of red velvet turned up with ermine, formerly peculiar to dukes(whence it is sometimes called a duciper), but now often used to place crests upon instead of a wreath.

Argent, three chapeaus sable(or cap of maintenance)--HALWORTH. The cap of maintenance occurs as a charge in the insignia of the city of GLOUCESTER, and on the seals of Towns of WALLINGFORD and STAINES.

The term chapeau, however, is variously used for a cap or hat of any kind. In the arms of COPE it is probably a cap of maintenance; it that of KINGESTON it is probably a hat of some kind.

Quarterly ermine and azure, a chapeau gules turned up of the first between two greyhounds courant in pale or--COPE, Osbaston, Leicester. Argent, a chapeau azure[elsewhere a steel cap proper], with a plume of ostrich feathers in front gules--John KINGESTON, 1390.

The doctor's cap in the arms of SUGAR refers probably to the University degree.

Sable, three sugar-loaves argent, in chief a doctor's cap proper--SUGAR, Somerset.

Long Cap. The long Cap, of a peculiar shape, which occurs in the crests of WALPOLE and BRYDGES, is shewn in the margin, and a cap somewhat similar is termed an Albanian bonnet, probably that worn by the peasantry.

Azure, trois bonnets Albanois d'or--VAUX, France.

The Abacot, a mere corruption of bycocket, is said in Spelman's Glossary to have been given to a cap worn by ancient kings of England, and is so copied into heraldic books. The Infula is used in one case in the sense of a cap.

Argent, an infula embowed at the end gules, turned up in form of a hat, and engrailed with a button and tassel at the top or--BRUNT.

Burgonet. Caps of Steel: of these there are various kinds, and they cannot properly be included under the term helmet. The first in the Basinet(fr.), or Basnet, properly a plain circular helmet resembling a basin, though sometimes they are drawn(improperly) like squires' helmets. The Burgonet is a steel cap, worn chiefly by foot-soldiers, and of the shape shewn in the margin.

Morion.

Morion. There is also the Morion(fr. chapeau de fer), which was worn by foot-soldiers, and is usually of the plain shape annexed, but it may be ornamented. In many ancient examples the points of these morions are turned to the dexter. A somewhat different morion is given on the crest of CECIL, Marquis of Salisbury.

Argent, a chevron gules between three basnets proper--BASNET. Argent, a fesse azure between three burgonettes[elsewhere morions] of the second garnished and nailed or--EVINGTON, Enfield, 1614. Argent, a chevron gules between three morions proper--BRUDENEL, Earl of Cardigan.

Caps(fr. chaperons) are also used for Falcons, q.v. Caparison, or housing(old fr. barde): the embroidered covering of a horse, which was often charged with the arms of the knight to whom the horse belonged, as on the seal of Edward CROUCHBACK, Earl of Lancaster. The horse represented upon his monument, and that of Aymer DE VALENCE, both in Westminster Abbey, are examples of the practice. The horses upon the great seals of King Edward I. and many of his successors are caparisoned with the royal arms. All animals embroidered upon the housing of a horse should face his head. The same they be said of all charges which are different on each side; thus a bend upon the right side of the caparison of a horse would appear as a bend sinister. Capital. See Gateway and Pillar. Capon. See Cock. Cappeline. See Mantling and Tent. Carbuncle. See Escarbuncle. Card for wool. See Woolcard. Cards: playing cards are used in the arms of the company.

Gules, on a cross argent between in chief the aces of hearts and diamonds, but in base the aces of clubs and spades proper, a lion passant guardant--Company of CARDMAKERS.

Careering, (fr. cabré): a term applied to a horse in a position which would be called salient if a beast of prey were spoken of. Carnation: (1) improperly used for flesh-colour, as no such tincture is recognised in heraldry(but frequent with French heralds); (2) a flower. The pink is also found.

Argent, three carnations gules, stalked and leaved vert--NOYCE. Azure, on a bend or within a bordure argent two pinks, slipped proper--WADE. Pinks are also borne by families of EDSIR(Surrey), of MARLOW, and of LEVINGSTON, and by SKEVINGTON, Bp. of Bangor, 1510-33.

Carp. See Mogul, fish of. Carpenter's square. See Square. Carreau, (fr.) (1) a quarrel, a kind of arrow; (2) a square charge like a block or delf. Carter fish. See Turbot. Cartouche: an oval escutcheon used by Italian ecclesiastics. Cartwheel. See Wheel. Casque. See Helmet.

CASTILE. Castle, (fr. chateau): the word castle used alone generally signifies either a single Tower, q.v. or two towers with a gate between them. A castle triple-towered is represented in the ensign of the kingdom of CASTILE, and is frequently found quartered in the arms of Queen Eleanor. The illustration is from glass still existing in Dorchester Church, Oxon.

Argent, a lion rampant sable, quartering gules, a castle triple-towered or--CASTILE and LEON. Gules, three castles triple-towered within the royal tressure argent--Burgh of ABERDEEN. Sable, a castle triple-towered or--TOWERS, Bp. of Peterborough, 1639-49.

Amongst other varieties which occur, are triangular and quadrangular castles; castles seen in perspective, and castles extending quite across the field. Castles are also described as domed, turreted(fr. donjonné), embattled, breached, &c., and it is not uncommon to describe in detail towers, gates, loopholes, windows, vanes, portcullises, and the like. Where the masonry is shewn by the addition of lines the term masoned is used. The windows and doors are sometimes represented as of a different tincture, and then are supposed to be closed; and the same if they are of that of the castle itself; but if of the tincture of the field they are supposed to be open, and the term ajouré might be used. Coulissé signifies that the portcullis is down.

Sable, two bars between three castles masoned or--CLEAVER, Bp. of Chester, 1788; of Bangor, 1800; and S.Asaph, 1806-15. Gules, a castle towered and domed argent, masoned sable; on the dome a flag--Town of BARNSTAPLE, Devon. Sable, a castle with towers turreted in perspective argent standing in water wavy azure and argent--CASTLEFORD. Per fesse azure and argent; in base on a rock a castle breached, the Indian colours struck and flag-staff proper; in chief two eagles rising or--STIBBERT, London(1768). Argent, a castle(or tower) triple-towered sable, chained transverse the port or--OLDCASTLE, Kent. Per fesse vert and gules, in base a lion passant guardant on; in chief a quadrangle of castles walled argent--Town of LANCASTER. Argent, on a rock proper a castle triple-towered and embattled sable, masoned of the first, and topped with three vanes gules, windows and portcullis shut of the last--City of EDINBURGH.

Sometimes the terms Fort, Fortress, Citadel, &c., are used. The Castle, too, may be surrounded with a fortification.

Argent, on a fesse azure, between two Cornish Choughs proper in chief, and in base a lion passant gules crowned or, a fort of the field--GARSTON. Vert, on a chevron embattled ... &c.; a chief charged with the gates and fortress of Seringapatam proper--HARRIS, Baron Harris, 1815. Per chevron azure and argent .... and on a chief silver the fortress of Khelat; a canton charged with the Dooranee badge--WILTSHIRE, 1840. Per chevron vert and argent; on a chevron or between, in chief two castles of the second, in base another surrounded by a fortification proper, three torteaux--GREEN, Kent, Baronetcy, 1786.

In connection with the Castle the Barbican(that is to say the advanced work) is described in some insignia, and the projecting turrets overhanging the embattled wall, called Bartizans, in others. Other additions are occasionally named, e.g. a trench, or the castle, may be standing in water or surrounded by a wall.

Gules, two barbican of a castle having loopholes, gate, and portcullis, with two pointed side tower; on each of the latter a pennon waving argent, and ensigned on the centre of the battlement by a royal coronet or--Town of DONCASTER. Gules, out of water in base, on embattled wall enclosing a castle with three gables from the embattled parapet, a piece of tapestry hung along the front between the bartizans and displaying three shields[shields described] ... Town of NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE.

JANE SEYMOUR. The badge of Jane Seymour, third queen of Henry VIII., blazoned upon a grant of lands made to her in 1536, presents a good example of a castle. The tincture are as follows:--

The walls argent, the ground vert, the tree of the same fructed gules, the phœnix or, in flames proper, and the roses alternately white and red.

Castles occur rarely in the old rolls of arms.

Monsire de GRANSON pale d'argent et d'azure de vi. piéces, a chastelez d'or en une bend gules--Roll, temp. ED. III.

The Castle is borne very frequently in the insignia of cities and towns, with other charges; of these insignia, however, the evidence is often only derived from the seal. The following may be named, but the list might probably be extended.

ABERDEEN; BARNSTAPLE; BEDFORD; BERKHAMSTEAD, (Hertford); BISHOPS CASTLE, (Salop); BOSNEY, (Cornwall); BRIDPORT; BRIDGEWATER, (Somerset), BRIDGENORTH, (Salop); BRISTOL; CARDIGAN; CARLISLE; CARMARTHEN; CLITHERO, (Lancashire); CORFE, (Dorset); DENBIGH; DEVIZES; DONCASTER; DORCHESTER, (Dorset); DUBLIN; DUNBAR; EDINBURGH; EXETER; FORFAR, (Scotland); GUILDFORD, (Surrey); HAVERFORDWEST; KINGHORN, (Scotland); KNARESBOROUGH; LANCASTER; LAUNCESTON, (Cornwall), LINCOLN, LUDGERSHALL; MALMESBURY; NEWBURY; NEWCASTLE under Lyne; NEWCASTLE under Tyne, (three); NORTHAMPTON; NORWICH; ORFORD; PEMBROKE; PLYMOUTH; PONTEFRACT; QUEENBORO'; SAFFRON WALDEN; STAFFORD; TAUNTON; TEWKESBURY; THETFORD; TIVERTON; WARWICK; WINCHESTER(five); WORCESTER; YARMOUTH, (Hants).

KEATE. Cat, (fr. chat): occurs not infrequently. Probably the wild-cat is generally intended, thought the special reference to the Cat-a-mountain in several arms seems to imply a distinction. A spotted cat is also referred to. Cats are found blazoned most frequently passant, but also rampant, salient, statant, and couchant. With French heralds the term effarouché is used to signify the cat when rampant(as if scared), and herissonée with 'the back up.' The wild-cat is supposed always to be represented guardant, although it be not stated in the blazoning. Musion, a fanciful name for a cat, is used by BOSSEWELL. A cat's head is also found on one coat.

Argent, two cats passant gules--CATT. Gules, two cats passant guardant argent--CATTON. Per fesse azure and vert, in chief a cat argent couchant, coward; in base a pierced cinquefoil of the last--CATHARNE, Pembroke. Vert, a cat statant, tail erect argent, within an orle of eight trefoils slipped or--VAGHAN. Argent, three mountain-cats passant in pale sable--KEATE, Herts. Per pale sable and gules, a mountain-cat between three roses argent--LIMPENIE. Sable, on a fesse argent, between three mountain-cats or, a cross formy of the field--HILL, Berks. Sable, a chevron ermine, between three spotted cats passant argent--HARTHORP, London.

Cat-a-mountain. Cats are also borne by the families of CHIVAS, Aberdeen; DUANE, London; ADAMS, Northampton; TIBBETT; LIPPINGCOTE, Devon, GIBBS, Dorset; and KEATS, Dover. Azure, a cat's head erased argent, between eight crosses crosslet of the second, 3, 2, 2, and 1--TOLDERREY, Kent.

The crest of the Duke of Sutherland is a cat-a-mountain sejant guardant proper: and two wild-cats are the supporters to the arms of FARQUHARSON of Invercauld; while the lezard, a beast somewhat resembling the wild-cat, is the dexter supporter of the SKINNERS' and MUSCOVY Merchants' Companies, as well as the crest of the former. Caterfoil=quatrefoil. Cathedral. See Church. Catherine Wheel. See Wheel. Caudé, (fr.): of tails of comets when of a different tincture. Cauldron: in found only in connection with the children in the cauldron. See example under Bishop. Cautel, or Cauntel(old fr.), found also spelt cantel and chantel: appears to be generally a corner at the Sinister chief point of the shield, but superseded in modern heraldry by the canton. See Quarter. Cave: this singular charge occurs in one coat of arms.

Gules, a cave proper, therefrom issuant a wolf at full speed regardant argent--WILLIAMS.

Cedar. See Pine-tree. Censer, (fr. encensoir): no example having been found in English arms the following French example is given.

D'or, à l'encensoir d'azur--LAMBERT, Limousin.

Centaur. See Satyr. Centre-point: the fesse-point. See Points of the escutcheon. Cercelé. See recercelé and Cross cercelée. Cerclé, (fr.): encircled, e.g. of a Tun or barrel. Cercle, (fr.): a large voided circle, only used in French arms. Chabot. See Perch. Chafant, (fr.): enraged, and is applied to the wild boar. Chaffinch. See Finch. Chain, (fr. chaine): (1) a series of annulets(q.v.) when interlaced are commonly called a chain, and are borne as distinct charges, as in the insignia of the kingdom of NAVARRE.

Gules, a cross and saltire of chains, affixed to an annulet in the fesse-point, and to a double orle of the same, all or--NAVARRE, taken after the battle of Tolosa, 1212. Argent, three circles of chains sable--Hoo. Argent, a chain of nine links in saltire, five gules and four azure--HATCHET. Azure, a chain couped in chevron between three mitres all argent; at the dexter end of the chain a padlock of the last--EVESHAM Benedictine Abbey. Gules, a chain of seven links in pale argent--KENDALL. Sable, three chains each of four links palewise argent--ANDERTON, co. Lancaster.

(2) Chains are also often fixed to the collars of animals and to other charges, e.g. to a portcullis, an anchor, &c., and are frequently of a different tincture from the charge, and the term chained is used either when two animals are chained together, or when a chain is attached to the collar of a single animal.

Argent, two barbels haurient, respecting each other, sable, collared and chained together or; the chain pendent and ringed at the end--COLSTON, Essex. Gules, a stag statant argent collared and chained or--BOIS, co. Brecknock.

Chain-shot. See Shot. Chair: this is used in one case in a singular manner.

Or, out of a chair resembling a mural coronet reversed argent a demi-lion rampant sable--TALSTOCK.

Chalice. Chalice: generally drawn in old examples as in the margin, though often with an octangular foot.

Azure, a sun in splendour, in base a chalice or; [otherwise a chalice or and in chief a sun]--VASSALL. Azure, two chalices in fesse or[elsewhere blazoned candlesticks]--EMERLE.

Chamber-piece. See Gun. Chameleon. See Cameleon. Chamfrain, (old fr.): signifying the armour-plates which cover the head of a horse. Champagne: rarely and irregularly used for the lower part of the shield generally, i.e. the 'ground.' See Point. Champaine, (1) Champaine(corrupted by some writers to Champion), otherwise urdé and warriated: is an embattled line, but with the top and bottom of each division pointed instead of square, and so resembling somewhat the line usually drawn in vair. It occurs, though rarely, as a line of partition.

Champaine. Purpure, a bend champaine argent--ARCHBY, Argent, a pale champaine vert--BOWMAN. Bendy of six champaine purple and argent--BOWBRIDGE. Gyronny of four champaine or, enarched argent and gules--BRAUNECK.

(2) The term Point Champaine, or Champion(q.v.) also is used. It is included in the forms of Abatement. Champion. See Champaine. Chape. See Sword. Chapeau. See Cap. See also Chapeaux under chaplet. Chapel. See Church. Chaperonne, Chapourn, or Shafferoon: (1) a name given to the small shields containing crests, initials, death's heads, &c., placed upon the heads of horses, either with or without a hood, at pompous funerals; (2) Chaperonné, or chapourné, appears also to be used to signify hooded, being applied to falcons, &c.

BOUTREN.

DE BRESSY. Chapé: a partition of the shield used by French heralds, and found by two lines drawn from the centre of the upper edge of the shield, diverging towards the flanks, and leaving the field resembling somewhat a wide pile reversed; the tincture is applied to the two portions thus parted off. Chaussé is similar to Chapé, but with the lines diverging from the base towards the two corners, and leaving the field resembling an expanded pile. The line may be curved, and the partition is then blazoned chaussé arrondi, &c.

De gueules, chapé d'argent--BOUTREN de Franqueville, Normandie. Ecartelé d'argent, et de gueules, chapé de l'un en l'autre--DE MONTBAR, Bourgogne. De gueules, chaussé d'hermines--DE BRESSY de Sablous, Normandie.

Chaplet.

Crown Triumphal. Chaplet, (old fr. chapelet, pl. chapeus): is, when not otherwise described, a garland of leaves with four flowers amongst them, at equal distances. It is to be distinguished from the wreath(q.v.), and though usually composed of leaves will be found blazoned of various tinctures.

Sire Rauf LE FITZ WILLIAM, burele de argent e de azure, a iij chapels[in Falkirk roll 'chapeus'] de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II. Party per fesse, argent and azure, three chaplets counterchanged--DUKE. Sable, three chaplets argent--JODRELL, Stafford. Sable, three chaplets gyronny argent and gules--DYRWARD.

It is more usual, however, to designate the material of which the chaplet is composed. It may be of roses(and this, perhaps, is the most frequent) or of flowers generally, or it may be of leaves, and often of laurel leaves. In the latter case it is termed a crown triumphal.

Monsire William PLAICE, port d'asur, au chief d'argent deux chapeaux des roses vermals--Roll, temp. ED. III. Monsire de HILTON de Haderness, port d'argent, a trois chepeletts de roses vermaux--Ibid. [Chaplets of roses are also borne by the families of SAXTON; DEAN; FAULDER; GREYSTOCK; FITZRALPH; LASCELLES, and others.] Argent, on a chevron sable, between three chaplets of flowers gules, another chevron ermine--BOROUGH. Argent, a lion rampant azure, holding in his dexter paw a chaplet of laurel vert, in chief a scroll sable, thereon the word "Emmanuel" or--EMMANUEL COLL., Cambridge. Or, two bars azure, on a canton argent a chaplet of laurel proper--HOLME. Argent, a garland of laurel vert, between three pheons gules--CONQUEROR, Frierton. [Chaplets of laurels are also borne by the families of PELLEW; KEATS, Dover; NIGHTINGALL, Norfolk.]

Rarer instances occur of chaplets of holly, or of hazel, or of brambles, while the single instance of the chaplet of rue is a name sometimes given to the crown of rue(q.v.) which occurs in the arms given by Frederick of Barbarossa to the Duke of SAXONY.

Argent, a fesse engrailed humetty sable, between three chaplets of holly leaves proper--Nicholas BUBBEWYTH, Bp. of Salisbury, Bath and Wells, 1408-24. Gules, on a chevron argent, between, in chief three chaplets of hazel or, and in base a plough proper, three shakeforks sable--PEER, Hazelwood, Devon. Argent, a lion rampant gules encircled by a wreath of brambles proper--DUSILVA, Portugal.

Civic Crown. When the material is oak the device is often blazoned as a wreath, and there is especially a 'wreath of oak acorned' which bears the name of the 'Civic wreath,' or the Civic Crown. It is supposed to represent the Roman crown conferred upon public benefactors, especially upon those who had saved the life of a citizen. The leaves should be represented tied together by a ribbon. The Ducal Coronet(q.v. under Crown) had originally oak leaves, but strawberry-leaves have been substituted.

Argent, a chevron gules; in base an oak wreath vert, tied azure; on a chief of the second, three mascles of the first--PELLEW, Cornwall, [1796]. Azure, on a fesse, between three garbs or, a wreath of oak vert between two estoiles gules--SANDBACH, Lancaster. [Chaplets of oak also borne by the families of STUDD, Ipswich; DICKSON, Norfolk; LLOYD, Sussex; MURRAY, Mexico, and others.] Gules, a lion passant guardant, and in chief two civic wreaths or, a chief wavy, charged with a ship of war before Algiers proper--PELLEW. Argent, a civic crown or wreath of oak acorned proper, on a chief azure a serpent nowed or, and a dove of the field respecting each other--SUTTON, Norfolk.

The Crown obsidional is also mentioned in old works on heraldry, which is a chaplet graminy, i.e. composed of twisted grass, and is fancifully said to have been bestowed upon any general who had held a city against a besieging force.

Gules, an eagle displayed argent armed or; on a canton of the second a chaplet graminy vert--GOODALL, Suffolk[granted Mar. 1, 1612].

The term garland as well as wreath, it will be observed, is used sometimes instead of chaplet. Chapourne. See Chaperonne. Charboucle. See Escarboucle. Charge, (fr. meuble, but more accurately meuble d'armoirie, or meuble de l'ecu): anything borne on a coat of arms, whether upon the field, as was more usually the case in ancient arms, or upon on ordinary, or indeed upon another charge. The position of a charge, unless occupying the centre of the field, i.e. the fesse-point, has to be stated. (See under the article blazon.) The great variety of the charges which have been adopted in Coats of arms, will be seen by the Synoptical view given in the Appendix, and this by no means contains all the minor varieties, nor all the extraordinary objects chosen in more recent times. The contrast between recent arms and the more simple bearings of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries is very marked. Charged with, (fr. chargé), signifies having a charge thereon. Charity: the representation of charity is thus blazoned from a seal.

A figure of Charity with one child in her arms, and three others standing near her naked; on the dexter side a shield hung on a tree, with the cross of S.Andrew on it, to which the figure is pointing; on the sinister side of the escutcheon a thistle issuing from the ground in base, stalked and leaved; over it a regal crown--The SCOTS CORPORATION[Incorporated 1665].

Chart: This device seems to be used in a solitary instance.

Per chevron wavy, azure and erminois, a chart of Chesterfield's Inlet, between in chief two estoiles argent and in base on a mount vert a beaver passant proper--CHRISTOPHER, London.

Chased. See under Thunderbolt. Chastel: written sometimes for Castle. Chataignier, (fr.): the Chestnuttree, but not noted in any English arms. Châtelé, (fr.): by French heralds signifies charged with castles(e.g. the bordure of the royal arms of Portugal is so blazoned. Chaudière, or Chaudron, (fr.): a cauldron, in French arms, but rarely. Chausé. See Chapé. Chausse-trap. See Caltrap.

WARREN. Chequy, Checky, Checquer-bearing, (fr. échiqueté, old fr. eschequeré): terms applied to a field or charge divided by perpendicular and horizontal lines, into small squares of metal and colour alternately. There should be at least twenty squares in the shield. If less, the number is named(as in the shield of TOLEDO, where there are 15). When only 9, with the French heralds the terms equipollé is applied. This pattern is said by some to be derived from the game of chess, which if not originally introduced into Europe by the Crusaders was certainly revived by them. Others, however, with greater probably derived it from the Steward's or 'chequer' board. In the Exchequer of the kingdom, and the Chancellor of that department, the word is still retained; and the 'Checkers,' a frequent sign of small inns, with the board painted in squares on the outside, still hands down the tradition of the account board. It is not, however, impossible that this board gave the name to the game of chess played upon it. While the number of pieces in the field must be, as already said, as least twenty, a fesse or other ordinary when blazoned chequy must contain three rows of squares, for if there be but one, the ordinary will be compony, and if but two, counter-compony. At the same time the field may have but two rows in chief of a fesse, for so the arms of Lord Clifford are represented in the glass windows at Dorchester, Hasely, &c. When a bend, chevron, or saltire is checquy, the square are not placed perpendicularly, but slanting in the direction of the ordinary.

CLIFFORD. Roger de CLIFFORD escheque d'or et d'azur ove ung fesse de goulz--Roll, temp. HEN. III. Le Conte de GARENNE[i.e. Warren] escheque d'or et d'azur--Ibid. Rauf le BOTELLIER de goules a ung fesse escheque d'argent et de sable et croiseletts d'or--Ibid. Or, a fesse chequy argent and azure--STEWARD, Scotland. Chequy of nine pieces or and azure--GENEVA. Chequy of twelve, sable and argent--ST.BARBE, Somerset.

At the same time there are some peculiar forms which may be noted.

Chequy in perspective argent and sable--PROSPECT. Chequy of lines palewise and chevronwise gules and or--SPOTWORTH.

Cherry: both the tree and the fruit of the tree are found in armorial bearings. The fr. crequier(q.v.) also is sometimes referred to as the wild cherry-tree. The griotte also occurs.

Argent, a cherry-tree fructed proper--ESTOWER. Argent, three cherry-trees, 2 and 1 vert fructed gules, each on a mount of the second--SHRUBSOLE, Canterbury. Argent, a saltire sable between four cherries gules slipped vert--SERGEAUX. ... on a chevron between three martlets ... as many cherries stalked; in chief three annulets ... --CHERITON, Bp. of Bangor, 1436-47. The charge is also borne by the families of MESSARNEY and THORNTON.

CHALONER. Cherub, or Cherub's head(fr. cherubin): this is drawn as the head of an infant between a pair of wings.

Argent, a chevron dancetty, between three cherubs gules--ADYER, Kent. Azure, a fesse dancetty between three cherub's heads argent--ADNEY. Sable, a chevron between three cherubim or--CHALONER, Yorksh. Azure, a fesse dancetty between three cherubim's heads or, faces argent--ADY, Kent.

Chess-rooks. Chess-rook, (old fr. rok): the figure called 'rook' in the game of chess, from the Italian rocca, a tower or castle. The chess-rook is an ancient bearing, and of frequent occurrence. It is also in the arms of ZULEISTEIN termed a zule, and this is borne on an escutcheon surtout by the Earls of ROCHFORD.

Sire Richard de WALSINGHAM,--de goules a iij roks de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II. Gules, three chess-rooks ermine--Simon le FITZ SYMON, Roll, temp. ED. I., Harl. MS. 6137. Or, three chess-rooks gules--COLVILL. Azure, a fesse between three chess-rooks or--BODENHAM, Hereford. Gules, three zules argent; a label of three points of the last--ZULEISTEIN.

The charge is also borne by the families of MARSHALL, AOLUITE, OGILVIE, and ORROCK. Cheval-trap. See Caltrap. Chevalier, (fr.): a man in complete Armour, q.v. Chever. See Goat. Cheverons: old term for 'party per chevron.' Chevillé, (fr.)=attired, is used of the stags' horns, when they have five or any greater number or branches. The word ramé(fr.) is also used, and appears to be synonymous.

TYES.

FITZWALTER. Chevron, (fr. chevron, old fr. cheveron): an ordinary occupying one-fifth of the field. The origin and meaning of this term has afforded ground for many guesses, but in diversifying the forms which bars across the shield may take, that of the chevron is a very natural one. The name itself is derived directly from the fr. chevron, i.e. rafter of a roof. It is found in the earliest of the Rolls of Arms, and is one of the most frequently employed of the Ordinaries. At the siege of Caerlaverock, for instance(A.D. 1300), Henry le TYES had a banner argent, or, as the poet writes, 'whiter than a brightened lily,' with a chevron gules in the midst. And at the same siege, Robert FITZWALTER, "who well knew of arms the business," on a yellow banner had a fesse between two red chevrons. Both of these arms are to be seen in stained glass in Dorchester Church, Oxon, in a window which was probably nearly contemporary with the siege, and perhaps recording the benefactors to the Church.

Baniere ot Henris li TYOIS Plus blanche de un poli lyois O un chievron vermeil en mi.

O lui Robert le FIZ WATER Ke ben sout des armes le mester ... En la baner jaune avoit Fesse entre deus cheverons vermaus.

It has two diminutives, the chevronel, which is half its width(more or less), and the couple-close, which is half the chevronel.

Moris de BARKELE,--goules ung cheveron d'argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III. Le Conte de WARREWIK,--chequy d'or et d'azur, a ung cheveron d'ermyn--Ibid.

A chevron is subjected to the same kind of variation in respect of outline as the bend, that is, it may be engrailed, indented, embattled, counter-embattled, dauncetty, wavy, raguly, fimbriated, &c.

Azure, a chevron embattled ermine--REYNOLDS, co. Leicester. Azure, a chevron dauncetty or--HAMELL, co. Buckingham, and HAMILTON, co. Gloucester. Argent, a chevron ermine fimbriated sable, between annulets gules--CLUTTON.

In one early roll two chevrons appear to be blazoned as a chevron gemel.

Sire William de HOTOT,--de azure, a iij cressanz de argent e un cheveron de or--Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire Johan de HOTOT,--meisme les armes, le cheveron gymile--Ibid.

It may be party as to tincture, compony or even quarterly, and, on the other hand, it may be voided, that is, the field may be made visible through it, leaving merely a narrow outline.

Argent, a chevron per pale or and gules--WESTON. Argent, a chevron quarterly sable and gules--HONYWOOD, Kent. Ermine, a chevron compony gules and argent--HILL.

DUDLEY. Further, the chevron may be charged with other devices of various kinds, and amongst these is especially to be noted the surmounting of one chevron by another. In the arms of STEER it will be observed that we have two different blazonings for the same arms, one describing the chevron as voided, the other as one chevron on another. And in the case of the arms of STALEY we have a further complication, since this chevron may be blazoned in two different ways, either as a chevron engrailed surmounted by a chevron plain, or as a plain chevron fimbriated. Precisely similar arms, as regards outline, are those of DUDLEY, which are blazoned as voided. It seems to be a case where authority can be found for either system of blazon, and it is difficult to say which is best.

STALEY.

THROCKMORTON. Argent, a chevron voided gules--STEER, Ireland. Argent, on a chevron gules another of the first--STEER. Azure, a chevron engrailed, voided or--DUDLEY, Berks and Bucks. Argent, on a chevron engrailed azure another plain sable--STALEY. [Or as it is elsewhere blazoned--Argent, a plain chevron sable, fimbriated and engrailed azure--STALEY.] Gules, on a chevron argent three bars gemells sable--THROCKMORTON. Gules, on a chevron argent .... bars nebuly sable--HANKFORD. Or, on a chevron engrailed azure bars wavy argent--BROWNE. Or, on a chevron gules bars sable--Lewis PROUDE, Charterhouse, 1619.

A chevron may be enhanced, that is, borne higher up on the escutcheon(no instance has been observed in which it is abased), and it may be reversed, that is, it may have its point downwards, like a pile, or it may be combined with a pile, but such variations are of rare occurrence. It is also sometimes found couped, that is, not extending to the edge of the escutcheon, or with the apex terminated by some other charge, when it may be said to be ensigned of such a charge.

Gules, a chevron enhanced argent--CARLYON. Argent, a chevron reversed gules--GRENDON. Ermine, a chevron couped sable--HUNTLEY; also JONES, 1730. Ermine, a chevron couped gules--AMOCK. Argent, a chevron embattled and ensigned on the top with a banner between in chief two estoiles, and in base a sun gules--EUENE. Argent, a chevron supporting on its point a cross patty sable--TRENEREEK. Sable, a chevron ending in the middle point with a plain de lis argent--KEY. Argent, a chevron, the top ending with a cross patty sable--FINDON; Harl. MS. 1386. Argent, a chevron sable and pile counterchanged--ATWELL, co. York; Harl. MS. 1465.

Chevron couched. Chevron couched: one which springs from one of the sides of the escutcheon. It should be mentioned whether it is dexter or sinister.

Or, a chevron couched dexter gules--TOURNEY. Or, a chevron couched dexter azure--DOUBLET. Argent, two chevrons, couched(and counterpointed?) vert--COUCHMASTER. Purpure, a chevron couched sinister or--BIGHTINE.

HOLBEAME.

ARCHEVER. Chevron inarched. Of this form there are two varieties, as shewn in the margin, found in modern heraldic designs, but probably no ancient authority for the form exists.

Argent, a chevron inarched sable--HOLBEAME, Lincoln. Purpure, a chevron inarched argent--ARCHEVER, Scotland.

A Chevron arched(fr. courbé), resembles a semi-circular arch across the field. It only occurs in foreign arms, and is to be distinguished from the arched fesse by the curve being somewhat more decided. For Chevrons interlaced, see Angles. Besides the above there are various forms of broken chevrons. But the terms do not appear very distinctly defined by heralds, and the actual examples are but few. We find the terms fracted, disjoint, bruised, or debruised(fr. brisé), and rompu or downset, the last term, to all appearance, being a barbarism derived from the French dauncet, which would be equivalent to dancetty.

Broken chevron, fig.1.

Broken chevron, fig.2.

Broken chevron, fig.3. Argent, a chevron debruised between three crosses botonny fitchy sable--BARDOLPH, Stafford. Argent, a chevron debruised sable, between three cross-crosslets fitchée of the last--GREENWAY[Glover's Ordinary]. Per pale argent and sable, a chevron bruised at the top, and in base a crescent counterchanged--ALEXANDER, Kinlassie. .... a chevron debruised by a fesse charged with a crescent, all between three annulets .... HEDLEY, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Azure, a chevron disjoint or broken in the head or--BROKMALE. Per fesse gules and sable, a chevron rompu counterchanged--ALLEN, Sheriff of London, 18¡¬deg; Jac. I. Or, a chevron rompu between three mullets sable--SALT, Yorks.

In the margin are given illustrations of one or two forms found in books, but no ancient examples have been observed. With the French engravers the chevron brisé is generally drawn in a similar manner to fig. 1, though the two portions are often still further apart, so as not to touch at all. Rompu and failli seem to be used by them when the sides of the chevron are broken into one or more pieces. In chevron would be applied to charges arranged chevronwise. Per chevron. See Party. Chevronelly, i.q. Chevronny. See at end of Chevron. Chevronny, (fr. chevronné): is used when the field is divided into an even number of equal portions chevronwise. Chevronelly appears to be used more correctly.

Chevronelly of four, argent and gules--WHITHORSE. Chevronelly of five, argent and gules, over all a lion rampant sable--WINTHORP, Suffolk. Chevronelly of six, gules and argent--CHALKHILL, Middlesex. Chevronelly of seven, or and gules, over all a lion rampant of the last--HASARD, Essex.

CLARE. Chevronel: a diminutive of the chevron, of which it is nominally one half the width; the term being used properly when there is more than one chevron. With the older writers, however, the term chevron is used, and so may still be used when there are two or even three chevrons.

Or, three chevronels gules.--CLARE. Or, three chevronels per pale, the first azure and gules, the second gules and azure, the third as the first.--WALTER DE MERTON, Bp. of Rochester, 1274-77, and founder of Merton College. Argent, two chevronels sable, between three roses gules, barbed and seeded proper.--William of WYKEHAM, Bp. of Winchester, 1367-1404. [Founder of the College of S.Mary at Winchester and at Oxford.]

TRENOWITH. Other ordinaries may be charged with the chevronel, while it in its turn is subjected to the same varieties as the chevron; though, of course, but rarely such varieties occur.

Argent, on a fesse sable, three chevronels couched sinister of the field.--TRENOWITH, Corn.

Chevronels are sometimes interlaced, or braced, and under the latter term an illustration will be found. See also Couple-close. Cheyne: old fr. for Acorn.

LUMLEY. Chief, (fr. chef): the first of the Ordinaries, and occupying about one-third one the shield from the top downward. The fillet is by some considered its diminutive, while others hold that it can have none. Some English heraldic books, and most foreign, speak of instances of two chiefs, one abased below the other in the same coat, but no English examples are ever adduced. A chief is frequently charged with other bearings, and it may be nebuly, wavy, indented, dancetty, engrailed, embattled, bevilly, &c., but it is only the lower side which is subjected to these variations.

Robert de MORTEYN BRETON, d'ermyn a la cheif de goules. Roll, temp. HEN. III. Rauf le FITZ RANDOLF d'or ung cheif endente d'azur.--Ibid. Sire William DABETOOT, de ermyne od le chef bende de or e de sable. Roll, temp. ED. II. Or, a chief gules--LUMLEY, Essex. Paly of six, argent and sable; a chief wavy azure--BURMAN. Argent, gouty de poix; a chief nebuly gules--ROYDENHALL. Argent, a chief dancetty azure--GLANVILE, Earl of Suffolk.

A chief may also be party per pale, per bend, &c., or even quarterly. When divided by a horizontal line the expression per chief is more accurate than per fesse.

Abp. PECKHAM. Ermine, a chief quarterly gules and or--PECKHAM. [Abp. Cant. 1219-92]. Quarterly; first and fourth argent, a cross bottonnee gules; second and third gules, three suns in splendour or; over all on a chief party per pale gules and argent, three cinquefoils counterchanged--John CHRISTOPHERSON, Bp. of Chichester, 1557-58. Barry wavy of six, argent and azure; a chief per pale ermine and gules--BARLOWE, Derbyshire. Barry of six, gules and or per pale counterchanged; a chief, the dexter side per bend as the first and second, the sinister, per bend sinister like the second and first; over all an escutcheon argent--HAGELEY. Chequy gules and azure; a chief per chevron wavy of the first and or--Sir Nicholas HAUBERKES. [From Glover's Ordinary.] Chequy azure and or; a chief per chief nebuly of the first and second--TAVESTOKE. [Ibid.]

CAREY. The chief does not, as a rule, surmount other charges, and consequently such have often to be abased. The bend, for instance, starts from the dexter corner just beneath the chief. When associated with a bordure(unless there is direct statement to the contrary) the bordure would be turned and continued beneath the base line of the chief.

Gules, a chief dancetty argent within a bordure azure--BARET[or BARRATT, Sheriff of London, 1379.] Argent, on a bend sable, three roses of the first; on chief gules three crosses patty or--CAREY, Bp. of Exeter, 1820, afterwards Bp. of S.Asaph, 1830-46.

Fillet. It is contended by some writers that the chief has a diminutive, and to a figure as shewn in the margin is given the name of fillet. French heralds, however, blazon this as chef retrait, the word filet being used for a diminutive of the cotice. The word combel is also given by some English heraldic writers as meaning the same thing. It is said that the fillet does not occur at all in English arms, but perhaps the following example may be cited--

Argent, two bars and a canton gules; over all a fillet sable--BOIS or DEBOYS, 1315, Ingham Church, Norfolk.

In Chief is a term frequently used when the charges are to be placed upon the upper part of the escutcheon, and differently from their ordinary position, There are also three points(q.v.) in the escutcheon connected with the chief, viz. the dexter chief point, middle chief point, and sinister chief point. Chieftain. See Head. Child: Children, bays and infants are represented on armorial bearings as early as the sixteenth century, and in a great variety of ways. Perhaps some of the oldest are those where the eagle snatches away the child from its cradle, which occurs in different families, and is variously depicted in the arms of the branches of the same family. Of course such arms are readily associated with tradition, but it is scarcely within the scope of a 'glossary' to discuss them. More frequently, however, the children's heads(q.v.) alone occur.

Argent, an eagle sable, crined gules, standing on a child proper, swathed or lying in a cradle vert--COULCHIEFE. Azure, an eagle preyant sable upon a child swaddled gules--CULCHETH, Lancaster. Argent, a tree eradicated sable; on it a nest of the first, in which is a child proper, swaddled gules, seized on by an eagle volant of the second.--RISLEY.

The three children in a tub or vessel are generally referred to the miracle of S.Nicolas, who restored them after they had been murdered and salted down for food; and in the insignia of the SEE OF ABERDEEN the Bishop is represented as praying over them. (See under Bishop.) Some curious legend must account for the origin of the following.

Sable, a goat argent, attired or, standing on a child proper, swaddled gules, and feeding on a tree vert--DAVIES, Hope, Co. Montgomery.

To another, (probably that of W. de ALBINI) is due the arms of Richard BARNES, Bishop of Carlisle, in which a naked child, front faced, is represented in one instance as holding in both hands the tongue of a bear. The following is one blazon.

BARNES. Azure, on a bend argent, between two estoiles or, a bear passant sable, semie des estoiles of the third, ready to devour a naked child of the fourth; on a chief of the second, three roses gules radiated with rays of the sun proper--Richard BARNES, Bp. of Carlisle, 1570; Bp. of Durham, 1577-87.

Other blazoning of these arms is found.

Azure, a bend argent between two estoiles or, a bear passant sable estoiled or, seizing a man proper; on a chief azure three roses gules radiated or--BARNES. Azure, on a bend argent, between two estoiles or, a naked boy, front faced, holding in both hands proper sable the tongue of a bear statant of the last estoiled gold, a chief as the second charged with three roses gules radiated like the third.--BARNES[the arms confirmed 1571, Harl. MS. 5847].

The FOUNDLING HOSPITAL in London has for its insignia:

Per fesse azure and vert; in chief a crescent argent between two mullets of six points or; in base an infant exposed and stretching out its arms for help proper. Motto, 'Help.'

Chimera. See Sphinx. China Cokar. See Palm.

Chisel. Chisel: this occurs variously in different branches of the family of CHESSELDEN. It also occurs in the crest of the Company of MARBLERS drawn as in the margin.

Argent, a chevron sable between three chisels or handled of the second--CHESELDON, Harl. MS. 1386. An arm embowed vested azure cuffed argent, holding in the hand proper an engraving chisel of the last--Crest of the MARBLERS' Company.

Chough. See Cornish Chough. Chub, (leuciscus cephalus): this fish, common to England and belonging to the order cyprinidœ, seems only to have been chosen for the sake of the punning name, since it is only borne by the family of CHOBBE.

Vert, three chub fish haurient sable--CHOBB. Gules, on a chevron between three chub fish argent three shovellers sable; on a chief dancetty of the second three escallops of the first--CHOBBE[and one of the quarterings borne by Lord DORMER, of Wing, Bucks].

Seal of Lord DE LA ROCHE. Together with the above must be classed the roach(leuciscus rutilus, fr. rosse). The most authentic instance of a delineation of this charge is perhaps found on Lord de la Roche's seal.

Gules, three roach naiant in pale argent--Seal of Thomas Lord DE LA ROCHE affixed to the Barons' letter to Pope Boniface VIII., 1301.

Again it is represented on the seal to Thomas Arundel, Abp. of Canterbury, 1397-1414, where the shield bearing the fish(which are supposed to be roach) is represented as borne by one of the four murderers of Thomas à Becket, though what connection they had with the Roche family is not known. It may perhaps be noted that the application of this charge to the name of the family is a singular instance of the punning adopted in heraldic devices, for the remains of Roche Castle, founded by Adam de la Roche, still exist on an insulated rock(fr. roche) of great height, and it has been suggested that the proverb 'sound as a roach' has its origin in the same confusion of the French and English language. The roach is found borne differently by different descendants of the family, e.g.

Gules, three roach naiant or within a bordure engrailed argent--Sir David ROCHE of Carass, Limerick. Sable, three roach naiant in pale argent--De La ROCHE, Herefordshire. Azure, three roach naiant argent within a bordure or--Walter ROCHE of Bromham, Wilts. Gules, three roach naiant in pale argent--Peter de RUPIBUS[or Sir Pierre des ROCHES], Bp. of Winchester, 1206-38, Or, a bull passant gules between three roach haurient proper, a chief chequy or and azure--Sir William ROCHE, Lord Mayor of London, 1540. Argent, on a bend sable three roach of the field--HUYSHE, Devonshire. Gules, a chevron engrailed between three roach naiant argent; on a chief of the second three herons sable, billed and membered gules--HOBBS, Middlesex.

Church: this is not unfrequently represented in coats of arms of recent date, but there seem to be no special characteristics to be noted in the several examples, and the method of representing the church seems somewhat arbitrary. Th

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last updated on: April 3rd, 2017

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