The surname of CHADBOURNE was a locational name 'of Chatburn' a township in the parish of Whalley in County Lancashire.
Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. The name was originally derived from the Old English word CEATTASBURN, literally meaning the dweller by the stream belonging to Ceatta. CHATTEBURN (without surname) who appears in Lancashire in the year 1251, appears to be the first of the name on record. Surnames as we recognise them today are believed to have been introduced by the Normans after the Invasion of 1066. The first mention of such names appears in the Domesday Book and they were progressively adopted between the 11th and 15th centuries. It was the nobles and upper classes who first assumed a second name, setting them apart from the common people who continued to use only the single name given to them at birth. It was not until the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) that it became common practice to use a secondary name, originally a name reflecting the place of birth, a nickname, an occupational name or a baptismal name which had been passed on from a parent to the child, as an additional means of identification. Other records of the name mention Johannes de Chatteburn, listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Henricus de Chatteburn, of Yorkshire, ibid. A later instance of the name includes John, son of John Chadbourne who was buried at St. James's, Clerkenwell, London in the year 1636. The name is also spelt as Chadbourne and Chadbourn. The rise of surnames, according to the accepted theory, was due to the Norman Conquest of 1066 when Old English personal-names were rapidly superseded by the new christian names introduced by the Normans. Of these, only a few were really popular and in the 12th century this scarcity of christian names led to the increasing use of surnames to distinguish the numerous individuals of the same name. Some Normans had hereditary surnames before they came to England, but there is evidence that surnames would have developed in England even had there been no Norman Conquest. The development of the feudal system made it essential that the king should know exactly what service each person owed. Payments to and by the exchequer required that debtors and creditors should be particularized, and it became official that each individual acquired exact identification.
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