The surname of CASTONGUAY was a locational name 'of Castellion' a spot in France. The name would also have denoted a servant who lived and worked at a castle or the residence of a feudal lord. The name was originally derived from the Old Latin 'castellum'. The name was brought to England in the wake of the Norman Conquest of 1066, and is now extremely widespread throughout the world. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. Early records of the name mention Hugh le Casteldein, 1235, County Essex, and Ralph Castelman of County Somerset, was documented during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377). Gilbert Chastelyn of Yorkshire was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. The earliest hereditary surnames in England are found shortly after the Norman Conquest of 1066 and are of Norman French origin rather than native English. On the arrival of the Normans they identified themselves by references to the estates from which they cam in northern France. These names moved rapidly on with their bearers into Scotland and Ireland. Others of the Norman Invaders took names from the estates in England which they had newly acquired. Later instances of the name include William Hamerton and Benet Castelyn who married in London in 1547. Henry Castleman and Dorothy Richardson who were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in 1758, and William Castellan wed Sarah Steptoe at the same church in the year 1798. In many parts of central and western Europe, hereditary surnames began to become fixed at around the 12th century, and have developed and changed slowly over the years. As society became more complex, and such matters as the management of tenure, and in particular the collection of taxes were delegated to special functionaries, it became imperative to distinguish a more complex system of nomenclature to differentiate one individual from another. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe.
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