This surname CARDWELL was a locational name 'of Caldwell' parishes in the diocese of Ripon and Peterborough. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. Early records of the name mention Adam de Caldewellea, documented in the year 1195, in County Derbyshire. Richard Cauldwell of Yorkshire was documented in Yorkshire in 1379.
Ricardus de Caldwell, was also listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. John Caldwell married Margaret Matthews at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in 1796. In Scotland, the name is of territorial origin from the lands of the name in Renfrewshire. The old family of the name appears to have ended in direct line in an heiress in the fifteenth century. The earliest of the name on record in Scotland was William de Caldwell in 1342. Robert Cauldwell was a merchant in the service of Sir John of Montgomery in the year 1405. James Cauldoull was a notary public in Glasgow in the year 1548. The surname was common in Edinburgh in the 17th century in the form of Caudwell and Caldwelle. Alba, the country which became Scotland, was once shared by four races; the Picts who controlled most of the land north of the Central Belt; the Britons, who had their capital at Dumbarton and held sway over the south west, including modern Cumbria; the Angles, who were Germanic in origin and annexed much of the Eastern Borders in the seventh century, and the Scots. The latter came to Alba from the north of Ireland late in the 5th century to establish a colony in present day Argyll, which they named Dalriada, after their homeland. The Latin name SCOTTI simply means a Gaelic speaker. Local surnames, by far the largest group, derived from a place name where the man held land or from the place from which he had come, or where he actually lived. These local surnames were originally preceded by a preposition such as "de", "atte", "by" or "in". The names may derive from a manor held, from working in a religious dwelling or from literally living by a wood or marsh or by a stream. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory.
Ulster King of Arms in 1884.
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