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being, if I may s0 express it, married to the church, the arms of the See on the dexter side, and his Family arms on the sinister, but if ho be married, he does not carry his wife's arms on his shield. On his hatchment lie uses two shields, the first on tile dexter side, viz., the arms of his See impaled with his own arms, surmounted with a mitre, the second on the deatcr, his own arms impaled with his wife's, in the same way as knights of the different Orders.
If a man marry a widow, he impales her maiden arms. A widower entering on
a second marriage, marshals with his own the arms only of his second wife. He is not, according to the laws of arms, entitled to continue the usage of his deceased wife's ensigns.
THE SHIELD OF ARMS.
According to the received authorities, there are ten classes of arms :
1. Arms OF Dominion, those borne by Sovereigns and annexed to the territories they govern.
2. Aims or PRETENSION, used by Sovereigns who are not in possession of the dominions to which such arms belong, but who claim, or pretend a right to them. Thus the.Kings of England from Edward III. to George III. quartered the arms of France.
3. Arms OF COMMUNITY, those of bishoprics, universities, cities, and other corporate bodies.
4. Arms OF Assumption, adopted without, the -rant of the Sovereign or of a King-of-Arms, and used as a proper right. For instance, if a prince or nobleman be taken prisoner in lawful war, the victor may bear the arms of the person so taken, and transmit them to his heirs.
5. Arms OF ALLIANCE : these are adopted by families or private persons, and are joined with their own heraldic bearings to denote tile alliance which they have contracted by marriage. Arms of this description are impaled, or are borne in an escutcheon of pretence by those who have married heiresses. But the latter arrange- ment (that of the separate escutcheon) is not allowed until the death of the father of the lady.
6. Arms OF ADOPTION are borne by a stranger in blood, and are specially granted by the Sovereign to empower the person applying for them to obtain certain moneys or estates bequeathed on the condition of his assuming the name and arms of the testator.
7. ARMS OF CONCESSION Or HONOURABLE AUGMENTATION are peculiar marks of honour granted by the Sovereign for some act deserving of royal approbation.
$. ARMS PATERNAL AND HEREDITARY are those transmitted from the first possessor to his heirs ; the son being a gentleman of second coat armour; the grandson a gentleman of blood; and the great-grandson a gentleman of ancestry.
Tile SHIELD admits of various forms, and is divided into nine integral parts to mark the position of the several charges, but I shall only here allude to the relative positions of the. principal parts.
First, it is to be observed, that the side of the escutcheon opposite tile left hand of the person looking at it, is the dexter, or right side, and that opposite to the right hand, the sinister, or left. Tile centre of the shield is called the fess point; the top of
the dexter side, the dexter chief; the top of the sinister side, the sinister chief. The bottom of the shield is called the base, and its respective sides are called the dexter and sinister base.
The Colours common to shields and their bearings are called tinctures, and are of seven different kinds; two metals and five colours, viz., or, gold ; argent, silver; azure, blue; gules, red; vert, green; purpure, purple; and sable, black. Some writers
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