The surname BERTRAMI was derived from the Old Germanic word Bertram, composed of the elements BERHT (bright, famous) and HRABN (raven) a name meaning 'raven-bright'. The raven was the bird of Odin, king of Gods, in German mythology. The given name was common in France throughout the Middle Ages, where its popularity was increased by the fame of the troubadour Bertrand de Born (1140-1214). Early records of the name mention Bertrannus (without surname) listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. Many of the early names recorded in medieval documents denote noble families but many also indicate migration from the continent during, and in the wake of, the Norman invasion of 1066. There was a constant stream of merchants, workmen and others arriving in England during this time. In 1086 the Record of Great Inquisition of lands of England, their extent, value, ownership and liabilities was made by order of William The Conquerer. It is known as the Domesday book. Robert Bartram was recorded in County Norfolk in 1273. John Bartram was documented in 1278 in the County of Lancashire. During the Middle Ages, when people were unable to read or write, signs were needed for all visual identification. For several centuries city streets in Britain were filled with signs of all kinds, public houses, tradesmen and even private householders found them necessary. This was an age when there were no numbered houses, and an address was a descriptive phrase that made use of a convenient landmark. At this time, coats of arms came into being, for the practical reason that men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way.
Later instances of the name include Frauncis, son of Amy Bartram who was baptised at St James's, Clerkenwell in 1563. George Bartrame of County York registered at Oxford University in 1585. Benjamin Bertram married Sarah Mills at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in 1741.
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