This name ANDERSON is now fairly widespread throughout Scotland, meaning 'the son of Andrew' In the lowlands, however, the form of Anderson is more common. The Andersons are regarded as a sept of Clan Chattan, having been associated with that Confederation of Clans from the beginning of the 15th century. It is claimed that the Andersons came to Badenoch from Moidart about the year 1400. One famous member of the clan was John Anderson of Dalnahatnich, known in Gaelic as Iain Beg Macindrea. The most prominent branches of the Andersons were Dowhill, West Ardbreck and Candacraig in Strathdon. The use of fixed surnames or descriptive names appears to have commenced in France about the year 1000, and such names were introduced into Scotland through the Normans a little over one hundred years later, although the custom of using them was by no means common for many years afterwards. During the reign of Malcolm Ceannmor (1057-1093) the latter directed his chief subjects, after the custom of other nations, to adopt surnames from their territorial possessions, and there created 'The first erlis that euir was in Scotland'. A notable member of the name was Elizabeth Garret Anderson (1836-1917) the English physician, the first English woman doctor. She began studying medicine in the face of prejudiced opposition to the admission of women, and eventually qualified in 1865. In 1866 she established a dispensary for women in London, later renamed the Elizabeth Barrett Anderson Hospital. In 1908 she was elected mayor of Aldeburgh, the first woman mayor in England. The associated coat of arms is recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. It has long been a matter of doubt when the bearing of coats of arms first became hereditary and it was not until the Crusades that Heraldry came into general use. Men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way.
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